Among the many branches of social sciences like Psychology, Anthropology, Economics, Geography, Linguistics, etc. Sociology is the study of human society. Society is a vast and complicated phenomenon and therefore it is debatable which part of society should be studied by sociology. There is a great degree of difference of opinion regarding the definitions, scope and subject matter of sociology. With so many different branches, it helps to analyze important aspects of every branch. Let us know more about the different branches of sociology.
1. Theoretical Sociology
Under this branch of Sociology, the theories of Karl Marx, Auguste Comte, Max Weber, Emile Durkhaim, Sorokin, etc are studied under the theories of sociology. These theories are based on theoretical perspectives and the assumption that social systems like family, roles, culture, social structure, and society as a whole exists and are real. For example, sociologists analyze different books and theories like ‘The theories of “Economic determinism” and the “Theory of Suicide” by Emile Durkhaim. These theories help sociologists in organizing ideas and thoughts amidst the huge cluster of theories available and utilizing them simultaneously.
2. Historical Sociology
Another name in the list of branches of Sociology is History! This is considered to be the study of social facts and social groups. The background is usually studied in this category. We get to know about the social events at large. The answers to different questions are given like how and when different social groups or organizations originated? The sociologists analyze and study The history of Hindu, Roman, Greek, etc. and other major civilizations.
3. Sociology of Knowledge
This branch of sociology helps to know and help to gain knowledge of social phenomena. They come to conclusions that highlight how knowledge is always influenced by society. The economic, religious , political and other interests save human belief and ideas.
This branch of sociology studies the criminal behavior of people or groups of people. Many questions are answered through it, like knowing the origin of the crime, its types of nature, causes as well as law, punishment, police, etc. The efforts for the improvement are also studied. Different organizations established to control the crime as well as their role also come under its study for a better understanding.
5. Sociology of Religion
This branch of sociology helps to study the structure of religion in the social system. Since religion has a lot of impact on society and as no society is free from it. It analyses the social behavior of human beings towards religion and their faith, along with the study of religious constitutions and their role in the society.
6. Sociology of Economy
This one in the list of branches of Sociology studies the production, distribution, consumption and exchange of goods and services. It helps to study the economic activities of the society in which the focus is given about the socio-cultural factors.
7. Rural Sociology
This branch of sociology studies the way of life of rural people as the rural population is higher than the urban. Patterns of life such as behavior, belief, culture, tradition norms, values, etc. which are totally different from urban people are analyzed in this branch. So, it studies rural society in a scientific way. It also studies rural life, social institutions, social structure, social processes, etc. of the rural society.
8. Urban Sociology
This branch of sociology helps to know the way of life of urban people. It gives details about the social organizations of urban society as well as the social structure and social interaction the urban people got through. It also studies the social pathology of urban society such as discrimination, crime, corruption, robbery, beggary, loot, theft, unemployment, prostitution, environmental pollution, etc.
9. Political Sociology
This branch of sociology studies different political moments of society. It includes the study of different political ideologies of individuals, their origin, development and functions. In this study, different political parties are considered as social institutions. Various activities and behavior of political parties are studied in this branch. It helps to understand the factors on which the political decisions are taken.
10. Sociology of Demography
Under this branch, there are studies about the size, situation, composition, density, distribution, and measurement etc. of the population. In this branch of sociology, we study the distribution of the human population with the analysis of population change in sociological perspectives. It also finds out the determining factors of population change and its trend.
12. Sociology of Law
Sociology of law and the legal system are considered as an integral part of society. Law is one of the very important means of social control. Law is related to other different social subsystems. This branch of sociology is related to moral order for the society as formulation and implementation of rules and regulations, law and order come under this.
13. Industrial Sociology
This branch of sociology is concerned with the industrial relationship of human beings. It studies the different industrial organizations and institutions. As well as their interrelationship and links with other various institutions of society. The relationship of individuals with respect to the industrial area is analyzed.
Along with the various branches of sociology, there are other areas as well where sociology is applied like race, occupation, art, literature, peace, culture, etc. Being a broad concept, it is important to choose the one where our interest lies. Hope it helps you to know more about the vast subject like sociology. With so many areas to choose from, the different branches target a specific topic and help to analyze it. Feel free to drop a comment and connect with our team at Leverage Edu if you have any doubts or queries.