Developing Psychological Skills Notes

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Psychology chapter 9 class 12

Psychology Chapter 9 Class 12 profoundly focuses on developing psychological skills. Psychology is an interesting subject. It helps to understand human behavior, stress management, and much more. Students who don’t want to choose traditional courses can choose psychology in school. Here is an important chapter from psychology class 12 in CBSE. Read the blog for quick revision and study notes

Also Read : Class 12 English Syllabus

Developing as Effective Psychologist

The first topic in psychology chapter 9 class 12 is developing as an effective psychologist. The basic skills or competencies which are a prerequisite for psychologists to become an effective psychologist fall into three categories listed below-

  • General Skills 
  • Observational Skills
  • Specific Skills
Credits : Psychology Class 11 & 12

General Skills

These skills are generic in nature and are needed by all psychologists irrespective of their field of specialization like counseling psychology, industrial psychology, clinical psychology, etc.

Intellectual and Personal Skills

  •  Interpersonal skill -Ability to listen, be Empathetic, etc
  • Personal Skills-Personal Organisation, Perso
  • Reflective Skills-Ability to examine and consider one’s motives  Being sensitive to others behavior
  • Expressive skills Ability to communicate ideas, feelings in a verbal, non-verbal, and written manner
  • Cognitive skills-Problem solving, critical thinking
  • Affective skills-Understanding of interpersonal conflict, emotional control and balance
  • Personality/Attitude-Desire to help others, openness to new ideas

Sensitivity to Diversity: Individual and Cultural Differences

  • Ability to respect and appreciate different cultural norms and beliefs
  • Knowledge of self(one’s own attitudes, values, strengths, limitations) as one operates in professional settings with diverse others
  • Ability to work effectively with diverse backgrounds in assessment, treatment, and consultation
  • Knowledge about the nature and implication of individual and cultural diversity in different situations

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Observational Skills

  1. In order to become an effective psychologist, good observational skills are indeed a prerequisite
  2. Observational skills are basic skills that are used by psychologists as a starting point for providing insights into the behavior
  3. The following points are taken into account while making an observation-
  • Observe patiently
  • Pay close attention to physical surroundings-who, what, when, where, and how
  • Be aware of people’s reactions, emotions, and motivations.
  • Observe with an optimistic curiosity
  • Be yourself, give information about yourself if asked
  1. There are two major approaches of psychology which are explained below:
  • Naturalistic Observation- Here the psychologists observe phenomena or subjects in natural, real-life settings.
  • Participant Observation- Here the psychologist studies the subject or phenomena by being actively involved in the process of observing by becoming an active member of the setting where observation takes place.
  1. Merits of Observation method:
  • Helps in observing behavior in a real-life setting.
  • People from outside, or those already working in a setting, can be trained to use it
  1. Demerits of Observation method:
  • Events being observed are subject to bias due to the feelings of the people involved as well as of the observers.
  • In participant observation, the actual behavior and responses of others may get influenced by the presence of the observer.

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Specific Skills

These skills are core to the field of psychological service. For example, psychologists working in clinical settings need to be trained and attain expertise in various techniques of therapeutic interventions, psychological assessment, etc. Organizational Psychologists need to have skills in assessment, facilitation, consultation which can bring out positive behavioral outcomes in people working in the organization.

Relevant specific skills and competencies are classified as follows:

  1. Communication Skills
  2. Psychological Testing Skills
  3. Interviewing Skills
  4. Counseling Skills

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Communication skills

  • Communication is a conscious, unconscious, intentional, or unintentional process in which feelings and ideas are expressed as verbal/non-verbal messages that are sent, received, and comprehended.
  • Various levels of communication are elaborated below

Intrapersonal Communication

  1. Involves communicating with oneself.
  2. Encompasses activities like personal decision-making, introspection.

Interpersonal Communication

  1.  It refers to the communication that takes place between two or more persons who establish a communicative relationship.
  2. Forms of interpersonal communication include interviews, group discussions, face to face conversation.

 Public Communication

  1.  It is characterized by a speaker sending a message to an audience.
  2.  It may be direct, such as face-to-face messages delivered by the speaker to an audience, or indirectly such as messages relayed over radio.
  • Encoding refers to giving proper meaning to our ideas and converting them into message forms and sending it through a channel and decoding implies translating the encoded message into understandable forms.
  • The degree of effectiveness in communication depends on the mutual understanding between the parties involved in the communication process.
  • Components of human communication are explained below-
  1. Speaking involves the use of language and language involves the use of symbols that are meaningful in nature and a communicator must know how to use symbols effectively
  2. Listening is a process that involves reception, attention, assignment of meaning, and the listener’s response to the message presented.

Academic success, employment, achievement, personal happiness to a large extent depends on effective listening skills

Body Language is composed of all those messages that people exchange besides words. Factors such as clothing, body movement, eye contact are considered together in clusters

Psychological Testing Skills

  • It involves psychological assessment, evaluation, and problem-solving with individuals and groups, organizations, and communities
  • Psychological tests have been devised and primarily used for the determination and analysis of individual differences in general intelligence, differential aptitudes, educational achievement, social attitudes, and other characteristics of personality
  • While using psychological tests an attitude of objectivity, scientific orientation, and standardized interpretation must be kept in mind

Interviewing Skills

  •  An interview is a purposeful conversation between two or more people that follows a question and answer format and it is more formal in nature than most conversations because it has a pre-set purpose and uses a proper structure
  • The basic format of an interview irrespective of its purpose is elucidated below:
  1. Opening Of The Interview
  • Involves establishing rapport between two communicators and the purpose is to make the interviewee comfortable.
  • Generally, the interviewer starts the conversation and does most of the talking at the outset
  1. Body Of The Interview
  • It is the heart of the interview process
  • In this stage, the interviewer asks questions in order to elicit information and data required for the purpose
  • The set of questions prepared by the interviewer as per the purpose is called a schedule

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  1. Closing The Interview
  • The interviewer must summarise what he/she has been able to gather
  • The interviewee should be given a chance to ask questions if required

  Types of Interview Questions

  Various types of interview questions are explained below:

  1. Direct Question
  • They are explicit in nature and require specific information
  • For Example, “Where did you last work?”
  1. Open-Ended Question
  • Less explicit in nature
  • Specify only the topic
  • For Example”How happy were you in your last job”
  1. Close Ended Question
  • Provide response alternatives, narrowing down the response alternatives
  • For Example”, Out of Intelligence and  Empathy which is more important for a counselor?”
  1. Bipolar Question
  • A type of closed-ended question that requires a yes/no response
  • “Are you interested in working as a sales manager?”
  1. Leading Question
  • Encourages response in favor of a specific answer.
  • “Wouldn’t you say you are in favor of having flexible office timings?”
  1. Mirror Question
  • They are intended to get a person to reflect on what he/she had said and expand on it
  • For Example, You said, “You are interested in working in HR but still you haven’t been able to get a job in your desired domain”Please explain what can be the reason behind it?

Counseling Skills

  • Counseling involves helping relationships which includes someone seeking help, and someone willing to give help, who is capable of or trained to help in a setting that permits help to be given and received.
  • Some of the myths of counseling are listed below-
  1. It is not merely giving information
  2. Not the same as interviewing
  3. It is not about giving advice.
  4. It is not influencing the behavior of clients by persuasion, compelling

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Characteristics of an Effective helper are elucidated below-

  • Authenticity – It means that your behavioral expressions are in sync with what you value  and the way you relate to your inner self-image
  • Positive Regard For Others – Focuses on acceptance of the idea that feelings of both counselor and client are important and giving a comfortable space to the client to help clients express their feelings freely
  • Empathy -The ability of a counselor to understand the feelings of a client from their perspective.it is like stepping into someone else’s shoes and trying to understand the pain of the other person
  • Paraphrasing – It is the ability of the counselor to reflect on what the client says and feels using different words.

 Ethics In Counselling

APA has listed down the following guidelines to be followed in counseling-

  • Knowledge of ethical/professional codes, standards, and guidelines
  • Knowledge of statutes, rules, regulations, and case law relevant to the practice of psychology
  • Recognize and understand the ethical dimensions of his/her own attitudes and practice in the clinical setting
  • Seek appropriate information and consultation when faced with ethical issues
  • Practice appropriate professional assertiveness related to ethical issues

Psychology Chapter 9 Class 12 NCERT PDF

Psychology Class 12 Chapter 9 NCERT Solutions

Define communication and explain its components.

Communication is a conscious, unconscious, intentional, or unintentional process in which feelings and ideas are expressed as verbal/non-verbal messages that are sent, received, and comprehended. Components of communication are speaking, listening, and body language.

Explain the characteristics of an effective helper?

Characteristics of an effective helper are authenticity, positive regard for others, empathy, and paraphrasing.

List down the ethical considerations in client-counselor relationships.

Ethical considerations in client-counselor relationships are:
1. Knowledge of ethical/professional codes, standards, and guidelines;
2. Knowledge of statutes, rules, regulations, and case law relevant to the practice of psychology
3. Recognize and understand the ethical dimensions of his/her own attitudes and practice in the clinical setting
4. Seek appropriate information and consultation when faced with ethical issues
5. Practice appropriate professional assertiveness related to ethical issues

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