Humans coexist with billions of other species ranging from microorganisms like bacteria and viruses to trees and animals. Plants give us oxygen, animals replenish soil fertility. This chapter mainly focuses on the importance of forests and how to preserve wildlife and forests. Looking for quick revision notes for the Social Science chapter on Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10? Here is a complete chapter notes to help you ace your Social Science exam.
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Flora And Fauna
The chapter on Forest and Wildlife Resources in Class 10 explores the diverse flora and fauna in India. Rich in biodiversity, India is home to some of the most beautiful and rare flora and fauna in the world. Biodiversity corresponds to a large number of wildlife and plants diverse in anatomy and features and interdependent to each other for their survival. Lately, the stress due to our insensitivity to the environment has posed a threat to their survival. Estimation states that 10% of India’s wild flora and 20% of mammals are on the “Threatened list”.
Classification of species based on IUCN
Listed below are the species divided in categories based on their population as per Class 10 Forest and Wildlife Resources.
- Normal Species: Species whose population levels are normal for their survival. For example, Rodents, Cattles.
- Endangered Species: These species are on the verge of extinction. For example, Indian rhino, lion-tailed macaque.
- Vulnerable Species: These species are those whose population has declined that it is soon to move into the endangered category if the situation does not improve. For example, Asiatic Elephant, Blue Sheep.
- Rare Species: These species have a small population and may move into endangered or vulnerable categories if the situation does not improve. For example, Himalayan Brown Bear, Desert fox.
- Endemic Species: These species are restricted to few regions and can not be found elsewhere. For example, Madagascar Lemurs, Galapagos Tortoise.
- Extinct Species: These species are extinct from a local area, region, country, continent or the whole world. For example, Asiatic Cheetah, Pink Head Duck
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Negative Factors that Affect Species
According to Class 10 chapter on Forest and Wildlife Resources, the negative factors that affect the population of species are as follows:
- Uncontrollable use of natural resources for fulfilling human needs such as wood, leaves, rubber, medicine, dyes, fodder, manure, etc.
- Large-scale development of project and mining activities
- Expansion of agricultural area, railways, commercial and scientific forestry.
- Hunting, poaching, forest fires, environmental pollution drastically affect the forest’s biodiversity.
Protection of Forest and Wildlife
To stop the depletion of resources and complete wipeout of species, there is a need to save the environmental diversity. As mentioned in Forest and Wildlife Resources in Class 10, here are the major regulations and laws brought forward by the Indian government to protect wildlife.
- The Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act that got made in 1972 to protect the habitat of the wildlife. An overall Indian inventory of threatened species to be protected was released and it encouraged the protection of the remaining of certain endangered species by banning the hunting and poaching activities.
- The Central Government announced a few projects for the protection of animals that are gravely threatened like Sangai, Black Buck.
- The Wildlife Act of 1980, 1986 many insects got added to the index of protected species.
- In the year 1991, six species of vegetation got added to the list. It was the first time plants got added to the catalogue.
Check Out: NCERT Class 10 Science Solutions
Types of Forest and Wildlife Resources
The Indian government manages the forests and wildlife resources through the forest department and a few other departments. Let’s know the major types of forest and wildlife resources you must study:
- Reserved Forests: More than 50% of the total forest land is declared to be under Reserved forests. They are the most valuable in concern of conservation of forest and wildlife.
- Protected Forests: The Forest department declared that around 33% of forestry in India is under-protected forests and are protected from further depletion.
- Unclassed Forests: Some forests and wastelands that belong to both the government as well as private individuals and communities. They are mostly found in Gujarat and North-eastern states where there is a high percentage of forests.
Reserved and Protected Forests are also known as Permanent forests. Permanent forests are maintained for producing timber and other forests products. Madhya Pradesh has the most Permanent Forests.
Community And Conservation
Apart from the Government of India, certain communities came together to conserve forests and wildlife. As mentioned in Class 10 Forest and Wildlife Resources, here is a summary of major revolutions and instances where people came together to protect nature:
- Rajasthan villagers fought against mining by referring to the Wildlife Protection Act in Sariska Tiger Reserve.
- The famous Chipko Movement of the Himalayan region where several communities resisted deforestation and supported afforestation with indigenous species.
- 5 villages of Alwar district united and declared 1,200 hectares as Bhairodev Dakav ‘Sonchuri’. They made their own rules and regulations to promote the safety of the forest and wildlife resources and even protected the wildlife from outside hindrance.
- Farmers, like in the Beej Bachao Andolan in Tehri showed adequate ranges of crop production organically.
- Indian Joint Forest Management (JFM) Programme promotes local communities in the management and restoration of degraded forests. The programme started in 1988 in Odisha
- Some tribal groups protect and worship nature. Such belief has preserved forests called Sacred groves. For example, Mundas and Santhal of Chota Nagpur worship the Mahua and Kadamba trees. Tribals of Odisha and Bihar worship Tamarind trees and Mango plants.
We hope the Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 notes helped you understand the essential concepts covered in this chapter. Still unsure about which stream to choose after Class 10. Our Leverage Edu experts are here to guide you in selecting the right stream of study to make sure that you make an informed decision. Sign up for a free session with us now!