In NCERT Class 9 Civics, the features of democracy elucidate that a democratic government does not rely all its power on just one aspect but the design of a democratic government is meticulously planned to facilitate power-sharing. This way, the role of the legislature, judiciary, and executive powers are prominent for the same objective. Moving to the first chapter of Class 10 Social Science– Civics, you will get to know about power-sharing and how it is carried out for the smooth functioning of a democracy. Through this blog, we have summarized this chapter and prepared Power Sharing class 10 notes to assist you in comprehending the major concepts under this topic.
This Blog Includes:
- What is Power Sharing?
- The Story of Belgium
- The Story of Sri Lanka
- Importance of Power Sharing
- Forms of Power Sharing
- PPT on Power Sharing
- Questions & Answers on Power Sharing
What is Power Sharing?
Democratic states are based on the principle of power-sharing, and to govern the states efficiently, and without tussles, the policy of power-sharing is necessary. While studying the Power Sharing Class 10 notes, you must also know that state power should be divided among all administrative machinery stakeholders such as Legislature, the Executive, and the judiciary. To help students understand this through a real example, the chapter on Power Sharing in Class 10th civics begins with the story of Belgium and Sri Lanka, the two nations that faced issues regarding power-sharing and how they dealt with it.
The Story of Belgium
You must have heard about the beautiful country of Belgium which is located in Europe and shares its borders with the Netherlands, France, and Germany. The Class 10 Chapter on Power Sharing notes that Belgium has a diverse ethnic population with 59% Dutch-speaking people living in the Flemish region, 40% French-speaking people living in the Wallonia region, and the remaining 1% man-speaking people living in the Belgian region. The capital of Belgium, Brussels, is home to 80% French-speaking people who are much better than the rest 20% Dutch-speaking in terms of Socio-Economic development. The disparity led to clashes between the two ethnic groups in the 1950s and 1960s. The Dutch people were a minority in the capital but a majority in the country. They could have easily dominated the French and German-speaking people in the nation, which could have led to further disputes and a possible partition.
Accommodation in Belgium
The Belgium story differs from Srilanka majoritarianism because of the use of the formerly recognized diversity of language and culture in their country. The Belgian government sought to accommodate this diversity by amending the constitution to ensure equality of rights and opportunities in the country. From 1970 to 1993, the Belgian constitution was amended four times to recognize equal representation in the government such as the Dutch and French-speaking ministers must be equal in the central government. The constitution empowered the state government and decentralized power to protect the interests of the minority community. The country has three governments- central, state, and community government to protect the diverse interests of the Belgian people.
This example of Power Sharing in Class 10 highlights the conduct of the Belgium government that took the stance of acknowledging the differences between the ethnic communities and dividing political power and rights among ethnic groups.
The Story of Sri Lanka
Another country that has been referred to in the Power Sharing class 10 notes in Sri Lanka. Just like Belgium, Sri Lanka has a history of ethical issues. When Sri Lanka achieved its independence, the government adopted a Sinhala majoritarian policy, ignoring the Tamil minority.
- The Sri Lankan government passed an act in 1956, making Sinhala the country’s official language, hurting the sentiments of the Tamil citizens who also faced discrimination in Universities and government jobs.
- The Sri Lankan government provided special protection to Buddhism, which was the religion of the majority. The government’s discriminative policies led to the development of bitter relations between the Sinhalese and the Tamils.
- The Tamils launched different movements and engaged in a political struggle for their rights only to be led down in the end. This made the Tamils demand a separate Tamil state within the national Sri Lankan territory which eventually led to a civil war. Thus, as a result, the civil war cost Sri Lanka its economic development.
Thus, the chapter on Power Sharing in Class 10 explains the difference in the approach of the Belgium and Srilankan government in handling ethnic issues. It also notes that while the Belgians opted for the sharing of power through democratic means, Sri Lanka didn’t give up on majoritarianism.
Majoritarianism in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka gained independence in the year 1948. After the post-independence era saw a shift in the political power dynamics. The political leaders from the Sinhala community sought to establish a government. The Sinhala political leaders adopted majoritarian policies to secure their supremacy in the political sphere and thereby marginalizing the Tamil community in Sri Lanka. The government passed an Act in 1956, which declared Sinhala as the only official language of the country. They adopted a constitution that protected and declared Buddhism as the national religion and adopted preferential policies to favour the majority in government positions and universities. These majoritarian policies isolated and alienated the Tamil community. The community was denied equal rights and opportunities which led to massive dissatisfaction. The Srilankan Tamilians formed their parties to demand regional autonomy and by the 1990s, the demands turned towards complete independence and the formation of the Tamil Eelam in the northern and eastern parts of the country.
Importance of Power Sharing
The importance of Power Sharing is also elaborated upon in this second chapter of Class 10 Social Science. It essentially notes that giving space to everyone in a multi-ethnic or cultural society is necessary. Each community has its way of living and deserves the necessary respect in the public space. The two major issues that can arise without intelligent power-sharing are:
- Conflict Among Social groups
- Political Instability
You will learn in Class 10th civics that power-sharing is the essence of democracy as it keeps mistrust and tyranny at bay. The morality behind power-sharing is simple and is based on basic human values. From an administrative point of view, power-sharing is important because it will promote participation and bring out the best outcomes in every sector.
Forms of Power Sharing
Moving to the next section, you must also go through the forms of Power Sharing while studying our Class 10 notes. The origin of power-sharing came in opposition to undivided power and it is evident that throughout history, power was considered something meant for only a few. With the advent of modern democratic states, the historical character of power changed. But the question that arises is: what is power-sharing in a modern democratic state?
Any modern democracy will strive to create a perfect balance of power by acknowledging the importance of all the stakeholders. In the chapter on Power Sharing in Class 10, you will learn about the important forms of power-sharing in democratic states which are as follows:
Power Sharing in Different Organs of the Government
The legislature, executive, and judiciary are some of the important stakeholders in national governance. Each one of them has an important role to play in national political affairs and is subjected to the horizontal distribution of power. As per the chapter notes on Power Sharing in Class 10, such a separation of power is necessary so that none of these stakeholders enjoys unlimited power and balances out each other. This kind of arrangement is also known as the system of checks and balances.
Power Sharing Among Governments at Different Levels
What is power-sharing among different levels of government? It is the essence of a federal structure where a central government is looking upon the national affairs and provincial or state governments look after their respective states’ affairs. Going through our study notes on Power Sharing in Class 10, you must understand the concept of the federal structure of power which is necessary for facilitating power-sharing amongst different levels in a government. In India, for example, there are further divisions of power taking in panchayats and municipalities.
Another form of Power Sharing you must note while studying this chapter is the distribution of power among social groups and communities. Social groups are also considered essential players in national governance, the most important being linguistic and religious groups. This chapter includes a unique example of how, in some countries, there is a special representation for socially weaker sections and women in the legislatures and administration. The reservation system is also a great example of such an arrangement. Protection of the rights of minorities and their representation in the national government through direct or indirect participation is an important case study elaborated in Class 10th civics.
Power Sharing Among Influential Groups
Political parties, Businessmen, industrialists, farmers, and industrial workers are also powerful social groups that can affect a nation’s governance. They must be given their due share in the national polity as they can influence the policy-making of a government quite well.
PPT on Power Sharing
Questions & Answers on Power Sharing
Now that you are familiar with the key aspects of Power Sharing and how it is carried out amongst diverse groups and sections, we have also listed some of the major exam questions you must practice after studying the Power Sharing Class 10 notes:
The Srilankan government recognized Sinhala as the only official language in 1956 with a constitutions act.
The third type of government in Belgium is the Community government which represents language interests in the country.
Majoritarianism is ruled by the majority community in a country. Eg. Srilanka under the Sinhala majority government was considered majoritarianism as it marginalized the minority community’s political interests, culture, and language.
The people of the Wallonia region in Belgium speak French and have equal representation in the central government within a decentralized power-sharing system.
- Describe some of the major forms of power-sharing in modern democracies with suitable examples.
- Give an example of power-sharing in the Indian context. Elaborate on your example with suitable reasons.
- Does power-sharing play an important role in democracy? Elaborate.
- What role does power-sharing have in minimising the possibility of conflicts amongst social groups?
Ans. Political Science (Civics) is the subject of power-sharing in Class 10.
Ans. The 4 types of power-sharing are pressure groups, power-sharing agreements, movements control, and political parties.
Ans. When political, military, and economic power is distributed equally amongst different groups in situations of conflict, it is called power sharing.
Hence, we hope that you found the Power Sharing Class 10 notes and summary insightful. Need expert guidance in choosing the best stream after the 10th? Our Leverage Edu counselors are just a click away from guiding you in this crucial decision of your academic journey to ensure that you take an informed decision toward a bright future! Sign up for a free session with us today!