Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 introduces students to land resources, classification, and development. In this unit of Class 10 Social Science, you will get to know about the different types of resources as well as resource planning and different kinds of soils found in India. Students also learn about soil erosion and soil conservation. If you are studying this chapter for the social science exam and need a comprehensive summary, here we have prepared resources and development Class 10 notes that you must go through!
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The first topic you will study in Resources and Development Class 10 notes is the meaning of resources. The term ‘Resource’ can be termed as everything available in the environment which is economically feasible, technologically accessible, and culturally suitable, and which can be leveraged to fulfil our needs. Human beings play an integral role in resource development, converting environmentally-available materials into meaningful resources that can be used to satisfy their needs.
Classification of Resources
While going through our Resources and Development Class 10 notes, you must remember the three basis of the classification of resources:
Origin – Biotic & Abiotic
- Biotic Resources: These are acquired from the biosphere and are usually living beings or associated with life. The best examples for biotic resources are humans, wildlife and vegetation, aquatic organisms, animals, etc.
- Abiotic Resources: Abiotic resources are called all those things which are made of non-living things. Rocks and metals, for example.
They are privately owned by individuals as well. Many farmers own land that is assigned to them against the payment of income by the state. There are people who own land in villages, but there are many who are landless. Plots, residences and other land are owned by urban residents. Some of the examples of individual ownership of resources are planting, farm land, reservoirs, water in wells, etc.
There are assets that are open to all the members of the society. Public parks, picnic spots, playgrounds in urban areas (grazing grounds, burial grounds, village ponds, etc.) are actually open to all the people living there.
All the resources legally belong to the country. The government has legislative powers to seize private property for the public benefit as well. You may have seen roads, canals, railways being established on fields that are owned by some citizens. Urban Development Authorities are encouraged to purchase land by the state.
International organisations, which control such tools, exist. Ocean resources outside the 200 nautical miles of the Exclusive Economic Zone belong to the open ocean, and they can not be used by any individual country without the consent of international institutions.
Resources that can be renewed, replenished, or reproduced by mechanical, chemical, or physical processes. They can be further classified into continuous/flow like water, solar and wind energy, etc.
These occur over a very long geological time. Minerals and fossil fuels are examples of such resources. These resources take millions of years in their formation. Some of the resources like metals are recyclable and some like fossil fuels cannot be recycled and get exhausted with their use.
Status of Development
- Developed Resources: In Resources and Development Class 10 notes, you will learn about developed resources. These resources have already been surveyed and their quantity/quality determined.
- Potential Resources: These are ones available in a region but not utilized yet.
- Stock: Resources that are potentially useful for human needs but cannot be technologically accessed.
- Reserves: It is a subset of stock, wherein the resources can be leveraged using technical know-how but have not been developed yet.
Unmindful resource development has led to major environmental and societal problems that include:
- Resource depletion to satiate the greed of a handful of individuals
- Resource accumulation in a few hands, causing a division in the society, i.e. rich and the poor
- Global ecological crises like ozone layer depletion, land degradation, pollution, and global warming
The chapter on Resources and Development in Class 10 notes that in order to avoid these conditions, effective resource planning is crucial for sustainable development. It means “development should take place without damaging the environment, and development in the present should not compromise with the needs of future generations.”
Resources and Development Class 10 notes also focus on Resource Planning in India. This includes:
- Discovering and making an inventory of all types of resources across the country. The process comprises surveying, mapping, quantitative & qualitative estimation, and measuring the resources.
- Setting up a planning structure powered by the right skills, technology and institutional framework to implement the resource development strategies
- Aligning the resource development strategies with national development goals
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Moving to the next section of our Resources and Development Class 10 notes, you must also study the following facts on the land resources in India:
- The country has around 43% of plain land area, providing facilities for industry and agriculture
- About 27% comprises of the plateau which has excellent reserves of fossil fuels, forests, and minerals
- Mountains comprise about 30% of the country’s land area, ensuring the flow of perennial rivers and providing facilities for ecological & tourism development
Land Use Pattern in India
The Class 10 chapter on Resources and Development also describes how land usage is determined in India:
- Human factors: Technological capacity, population density, traditions, culture, etc.
- Physical factors: Climate, topography, soil types, etc.
Land use data for India is available only for 93% because a major portion of the north-east states (except Assam) and some areas of Jammu & Kashmir (occupied by China and Pakistan) have not been surveyed yet.
Land Degradation and Conservation
Unrestricted human activities like mining, overgrazing, quarrying, and deforestation are the primary reasons behind land degradation in India.
Some common measures for land conservation as outlined in our Resources and Development Class 10 notes are:
- Implementation of strict government regulations to control mining activities
- Effective management of wastelands
- Control on overgrazing
- Plantation of shelterbelts of plants like mangroves, etc.
- Growing thorny bushes to control the formation of sand dunes in desert regions.
Soil as a Resource
In the Class 10 Social Science Resources and Development chapter, you will learn that soil is the primary renewable natural resource in India. It supports plant growth and promotes the survival of various types of living organisms on the earth.
Classification of Soil
Indian soil can be broadly categorized based on different factors like soil formation, thickness, colour, age, physical and chemical properties, and texture. Different types of soils in India are:
- Alluvial soil: This is fertile soil, most suitable for agriculture purposes such as the growth of paddy, wheat, sugarcane, and other pulse and cereal crops.
- Black soil: Fine clayey material makes it appropriate for growing cotton.
- Laterite soil: Ideal for cultivation with appropriate doses of fertilizers and manures.
- Red and yellow soil: Crystalline process and metamorphic rocks give it a reddish colour.
- Arid soil: Needs proper irrigation to make the soil cultivable.
- Forest soil: It is silty and loamy in valleys and coarser on mountain slopes.
Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation
Class 10th Geography Chapter 1 underlines the primary causes of soil erosion:
- Human activities like uncontrolled mining, construction, overgrazing, deforestation, etc.
- Natural ways such as water, glacier, and wind
Measures to prevent soil erosion and promote conservation:
- Plantation of shelterbelts
- Strip cropping
- Terrace farming and contour ploughing in the hilly regions
Thus, we hope that our Resources and Development Class 10 notes help you understand this chapter in detail! Confused about the right stream after 10th? Sign up for a free session with our Leverage Edu experts and we will guide you in making the right decision at this imperative step of your academic and career journey!