The class 11 inorganic chemistry aims to impart a thorough understanding of the periodic table which consists of 118 elements that are divided into blocks like p, s, d and f. NCERT chemistry class 11 has independent chapters on each of the blocks. The 11th chapter of class 11 chemistry takes us through the various properties of p block elements. Let’s get started and understand this chapter through our simple class 11 p block elements notes.
This Blog Includes:
- Understanding p Block Elements
- p Block Elements: Group 13 Elements
- p Block Elements: Physical Properties
- p Block Elements: Chemical Properties
- Important Compound of Boron: Orthoboric Acid
- p Block Elements: Group 14 Elements
- Group 14 Elements: Physical Properties
- Group 14 Elements: Chemical Properties
- p block Elements: Reactivity
- Allotropes of Carbon
Understanding p Block Elements
The chemical components from Boron to Oganesson in groups 13 to 18 belong to the p-block elements. The electronic configuration, which denotes the distribution of orbitals, is ns2np1-6 for all the elements from Boron to Fluorine to Oganesson, and Helium alone takes 1s2. The inner core has a massive effect on the chemistry of the elements. The inner core electrons of the p block elements impose enormous clout on the elements’ physical and chemical properties. The p block elements are innately metals, metalloids and nonmetals. The table mentioned below showcases the electronic configuration along with the oxidation state of the p block elements.
p Block Elements: Group 13 Elements
In our class 11 p block elements notes, the discussion begins with the topic of group 13 elements. The group 13 family has elements from Boron to Nihonium. The elements belonging to this group, majorly comprises metals and non metals elements. Let us now have a look at some of their distinguishing features-
Electrons revolve around the nucleus. Through the electronic configuration, we can depict the area of the electrons around the spectra of the nucleus. The electronic configuration for the group 13 elements is ns2np1. The Boron family has a structure different from the other two families due to the composition of various cores. This, in turn, affects the intensity of the chemistry and other properties at various levels.
Also Read: Class 11 Thermodynamics
Atomic radius surges when moving from the Boron to the last element at an ascending rate. It increases as there is an increase in the energy levels around the nucleus.
The next topic in our class 11 p block elements notes is ionization enthalpy. There are discrepancies in ΔH between Al, Ga, In, and Ti due to the inability of d and f electrons, ΔH = ΔiH1+ ΔiH2 + ΔiH3
The electronegativity depletes between B and Al but gradually increases after these elements.
p Block Elements: Physical Properties
All the elements other than the Boron possess similar characteristics. The following table contains a distinction between essential properties of boron and other elements-
|High melting point||Low melting point|
|Low electrical conductivity||Low electrical conductivity|
p Block Elements: Chemical Properties
The p block elements reflect almost the same chemical properties. However, there are some exceptions. Listed below are the major parameters for stating the chemical properties in our class 11 p block elements notes-
The sum of the s and p orbital electrons equals the oxidation state of the p-block elements. Apart from the oxidation state, p block elements might also exhibit other oxidation states called group oxidation states. Between the two, the oxidation state is more stable for the heavy elements.
The following table contains the oxidation states for the Boron family among the other groups of the p-block elements.
Analysing the table, you can notice the constant difference in the oxidation state values across the family elements. When the oxidation state is +1 for the Boron family, the group oxidation state increases by 2. The oxidation state of the elements escalates in the following manner: Ti> In > Ga > Al. The order infers that the +1 oxidation state increases for the heavier elements steadily. The +1 oxidations are more ionic.
Next in our class 11 p block elements notes is Boron family element’s chemistry with various external bodies.
|Air||Heating Boron and Aluminiumevolves B2O3 and Al2O3.||2E(s) + 3O2 (g) ⎯⎯→ 2E2O3 (s)2E(s) + N2 (g) ⎯⎯→ 2EN (s)|
|Acids and alkalis||Al fuses with acids and transforms into a hydroxide or oxide compound.||2Al(s) + 6HCl (aq) → 2Al3+ (aq) + 6Cl– (aq) + 3H2 (g)|
|Halogens||Reactions produce trihalides.||2E(s) + 3 X2 (g) → 2EX3 (s)|
Important Compound of Boron: Orthoboric Acid
Orthoboric acid is a soap-like crystalline solid with a high level of solubility in hot water. Acidification of aqueous solution turns into boric acid.
Na2B4O7 + 2HCl + 5H2O → 2NaCl + 4B(OH)3
Hydrolysis of halides and hydrides also form Boric acid.
p Block Elements: Group 14 Elements
While going through the class 11 p block elements notes, the next topic now is the group 14. The group 14 elements are called Carbon Family. Elements in this group are:
- Carbon (C)
- Silicon (Si)
- Germanium Ge)
- Lead (Pb)
The aforementioned elements of the group 14 exist the forms like-
|Carbon||Element state: Coal, graphite, and diamondCombined state: Metal carbonates, hydrocarbons, and CO2|
|Silicon||Found in Ceramics, glass, and cement|
|Germanium||Used in transistors|
Now that you are aware of the multiple forms in which the group 14 elements exist, let us go through some important features of these elements.
The electronic configuration of the group 14 elements is ns2np2
Carbon has the smallest radius among the group, whereas lead has a higher radius than Carbon and Germanium.
Ionization enthalpy decreases down the group. Ionization enthalpy decreases from Si to Ge to Sn. ΔiH escalates from Sn to Pb.
Electronegativity of the elements of the 14th group is the next topic in our class 11 p block elements notes. The elements of group 14 have electronegativity higher than the group 13 elements family.
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Group 14 Elements: Physical Properties
The table mentioned below showcases the significant features of the physical properties of elements-
|Carbon and silicon||Nonmetals|
|Tin and Lead||Soft metals|
Group 14 Elements: Chemical Properties
Here are some important chemical properties which the elements of group 14 exhibit.
The elements have common oxidation states. Carbon and Silicon show +4 and +2 oxidation states. Germanium produces good compounds in +4 and fewer compounds in +2 oxidation states.Tin forms great compounds in both +4 and +2 oxidation states.
p block Elements: Reactivity
Let us have a look at the reactivity of p block elements in our class 11 notes with respect to other metals, noble gases or elements.
When an element reacts with oxygen, it forms monoxides and dioxides. Oxides at higher oxidation states have more acidity than that of the oxides at lower oxidation rates.
|Carbon||Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide||CO- NeutralCO2– Acidic|
|Germanium||Germanium oxide Germanium dioxide||GeO- distinctly acidicGeO2– acidic|
|Tin||Tin oxide Tin dioxide||SnO – AmphotericSnO2 Amphoteric|
|Lead||Lead oxideLead dioxide||PbO- AmphotericPbO2 Amphoteric|
Carbon, silicon, germanium and lead do not react with water. Only the Tin element from the family can react with water.
Sn + 2H2O → SnO2 + 2H2
Carbon does not form halides. But, all the other members can evolve into halides like Silicon fluoride and germanium chloride. The halides are covalent except for the SnF4 and PbF4, as they are ionic. Germanium and lead can also give rise to dihalides like GeF2. The following equation shows how SiCl4 transforms into Si(OH4).
Allotropes of Carbon
The final and one of the most essential topics in our class 11 p block elements notes is various allotropes of carbon. Carbon prevails in two forms, both crystalline and amorphous. This property is called the Allotropy. One of them is diamond and graphite. Below is a detailed analysis of these two compounds-
The diamond has a tough three-dimensional structure, with each atom having a bond with three other carbon atoms. sp3 hybridization helps the atoms to link in tetrahedral fashion, and the covalent bond between the atoms occurs. The C-C link length is about 154 pm.
Bond occurs between atoms by sp2 hybridization, and the electrons are dynamic. This makes the graphite conductive. The distance between the atoms in the vertical fashion is 340 pm, and the horizontal distance is 141.5 pm.
Download the MCQ Questions for P-Block Elements Class 11.
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