As one of the most sought after disciplines for students planning to study abroad; Psychology is a diverse field, it includes a wide range of branches that helps in dealing with day to day life problems as well as helps in major life decisions. In this blog, we will explore how psychology helps us in life comprehensively and explain Chapter 8 Psychology Class 12 to help you ace your exams.
This Blog Includes:
- Human-Environmental Relationship
- Environmental Effects on Human Behaviour
- Human Influence on the Environment
- Promoting Pro-Environmental Behaviour
- Psychology and Social Concerns
- Chapter 8 Psychology Class 12 NCERT Solutions
The first section in Chapter 8 Psychology Class 12, talks about the Human-Environmental Relationship is explained as follows:
- The relationship between human behaviour and the environment plays a special role in our lives and environmental Psychology is the branch of psychology that deals with major Psychological issues related to the Human-Environment relationship.
- Ecology is the study of the relationship between living beings and their environment and the emphasis is laid on the interdependence between human beings and their environment.
- Different views of the human-environment relationship are explained as follows-
- The Minimalist Perspective is based on the assumption that the environment has a negligible influence on the well-being of human beings.
- The Instrumental Perspective mainly exists for use by human beings for their comfort and well-being
- The Spiritual Perspective views the environment as something which ought to be respected and valued in a true sense rather than just using it for comfort.
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Environmental Effects on Human Behaviour
According to Chapter 8 Psychology Class 12, Effects of Environment on human behavior are explained as follows-
- Environment influences perception
- Environment influences our emotions
- The environment does affect our Emotional reactions as watching nature in any form like gardens, mountains do provide us with a sense of calmness and peace whereas natural disasters like floods, earthquakes affect people drastically as they Experience PTSD post such disasters
- Environment influences occupation, lifestyle and attitudes-People living in cities, villages differ in their occupation, lifestyle and attitudes
Human Influence on the Environment
According to Chapter 8 Psychology Class 12, the influence of human beings on the environment is tremendous so let’s look how we impact our environment-
- We read earlier in instrumental perspective that human beings exert their influence on the environment for accomplishing their needs and wants and for that human beings sooner or later do pay a heavy price for their deeds as human influence on the environment leads to Noise, Pollution, Crowding and Natural Disasters.
- Noise: It is defined as a sound that is irritating and annoying to hear and it does impact our health. Three features of sound namely Predictability, Intensity and Controllability determine our task performance. Effects of Noise are explained below-
- Noise doesn’t have much impact in the case of a simple mental task like counting numbers etc.
- In the case of an interesting task as well, noise doesn’t affect the performance.
- Above a certain limit, noise does evoke a feeling of annoyance and irritability.
- Noise does affect in the case the task being performed is complex and requires concentration
- Pollution: Concept of Pollution is described as follows-
- Environmental pollution exists in various forms such as air, water, noise, soil.
- It is hazardous and harmful for our physical and mental well-being and it does have Psychological effects directly or indirectly.
- Environmental pollution also impacts our nervous system because of the presence of toxic substances which impacts our Psychological processes as well as emotional reactions as well.
- Waste or garbage that comes from households or from industries is a big source of air, water and soil pollution
- Crowding: It refers to a feeling of discomfort and uneasiness as a lot of people or things are there around us and that gives us a feeling of restriction. Some of the features of crowding are-
- Feeling of discomfort
- Lack Of Privacy
- Feeling of loss of control over social interaction.
- Crowding may lead to Abnormal Behaviour and aggression
- Children who grow up in crowded households exhibit Lower academic performance and high stress.
- Negative view of the space around us.
- Individuals vary in terms of their reaction to the Negative effects of crowding and that can be explained in two forms as follows-
- Crowding Tolerance refers to the ability to mentally deal with a high density or crowded environment, such as a crowded residence.
- Competition Tolerance is the ability to put up with a situation in which individuals would have to compete with many others for basic necessities like physical space.
- Personal space is the comfortable physical space that an individual generally likes to maintain around oneself is definitely affected by a highly crowded environment.
As Edward Hall mentioned four kinds of interpersonal physical distance which one likes to maintain around themselves-
- Intimate Distance is maintained up to 18 inches in the case of interaction that is private in nature or when interacting with a close friend.
- Personal Distance is maintained between 18inches to 4 feet in work or social settings.
- Social Distance is maintained between 4 feet to 10 feet and it is maintained in case of formal interaction.
- Public Distance is maintained from 10 feet to infinity in a formal setting where a large number of people are present.
- The concept of personal space is important as it helps in understanding the negative effects of crowding, defining social relationships etc.
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- Natural Disasters: They are defined as highly stressful experiences which are a result of nature’s fury which implies imbalances in the natural environment. Examples of natural disasters are Earthquakes, Cyclones and Floods. Effects of Natural Disasters are-
- Leave people poverty-stricken because of loss of life and property which happens due to natural disasters.
- This leads to PTSD which is post-traumatic stress disorder and it affects an individual mentally, socially, emotionally and physically as well. Physical Reactions include difficulty in sleeping, bodily exhaustion while Cognitive Reactions include worrying, concentration impairment, Social Reactions include cut off from others and emotional reactions include feelings of grief, anger etc.
- Although natural disasters can be predicted to a certain extent and below are the ways mentioned by which they can be controlled
- Warnings – Weather forecast must adhere strictly and the possibility of earthquake or flood should not be undermined.
- Safety Measures following is a must before, during and after the natural calamity.
- Treatment of Psychological Disorders should be done in case the victim of a natural disaster feels like seeking professional help and rehabilitation should also be done by providing employment opportunities so that the victims can revive their life before the disaster.
Must Read: Chapter 5 on Therapeutic Approaches in Class 12th Psychology
Promoting Pro-Environmental Behaviour
According to Chapter 8 Psychology Class 12, Pro-environmental behaviour includes actions that protect the environment from problems and promote a healthy environment. Ways to promote pro-environmental behaviour are listed below-
- Reducing air and noise pollution.
- Managing disposal of garbage sensibly.
- Planting trees and ensuring their care
- Saying no to plastics in any form
- Reducing the non-biodegradable packaging of consumer goods.
Poverty and Discrimination
- Poverty in economic terms is defined as a condition in which there is a lack of necessities of life in the context of unequal distribution of wealth in society.
- However, deprivation is a bit different from poverty as deprivation refers to a state in which a person feels he/she has lost something valuable and has got less as compared to what they deserve.
- Discrimination is defined as a behaviour that makes a distinction between rich and poor in such a way that the rich is favoured and the poor are on a disadvantaged side. This distinction can be observed in matters of social interaction, education and employment.
- Effects of poverty and deprivation are listed below-
- Poor have low aspiration and low achievement motivation and high need for dependence and according to the success and failure has more to do with luck and less with hard work and diligence.
- Poor exhibit resentment and hatred towards society.
- Poor people are high on anxiety and depression and low on self-esteem and self-efficacy.
- The poor are highly vulnerable to mental disorders and illnesses.
- Major causes of poverty are-
- The poor themselves are responsible for poverty
- Poverty can be defined as a belief system, way of life and mindset which keeps people deprived of basic necessities and other luxuries of life and this we term as,’ Culture of Poverty.
- Various Socio-Economic and Political factors lead to poverty
- The poverty cycle explains that poverty begets poverty. Poor people are bereft of basic necessities of life and have low income and because of that they fail to educate themselves and lack proper nutrition and due to that their motivation levels are lowered. Thus all the factors mentioned above lead to the persistence of the poverty cycle.
- Measures for poverty alleviation are listed below-
- Providing educational and employment opportunities to the disadvantaged sections of society and implementation of the principle of social justice.
- Measures for improving the mental health of poor people must be taken to facilitate the overall well-being of poor people.
- Breaking the poverty cycle can definitely help in the alleviation of poor people.
- Making poor people self-dependent and self-sufficient.
- Implementation of the concept of Antyodaya which means the rise of the last person in the society,i.e, the most disadvantaged people in society has indeed helped poor people to alleviate themselves holistically.
Must Read: Psychology NCERT Syllabus for Class 12
Aggression, Violence and Peace
According to Chapter 8 Psychology Class 12, the concept of aggression and the ways to reduce it are explained as follows-
- Aggression is defined as a behaviour by an individual or a group of individuals that is intended to cause harm to others whereas forceful destructive behaviour towards another person or object is described as violence. Aggression is a deliberate attempt to cause harm to others whereas violence may be intentional or unintentional.
- There are two types of aggression explained as follows-
- Instrumental aggression-Here the aggressive behaviour is done to obtain something from the other person. For example, A bully may slap his peer to obtain his pencil box and tiffin.
- Hostile Aggression-Here the aggressive behaviour is done deliberately to harm the other person without obtaining anything from them.
- Causes of Aggression are explained below-
- Inborn tendency-Aggression is an inborn tendency in human beings that is present from birth and if we see from evolutionary perspective aggression is inherently present for the purpose of self-defence.
- Child-Rearing-Upbringing of a child plays a crucial role in their personality development and it determines whether they will be calm or aggressive.
- Frustration- Aggression is a result of frustration as not being able to achieve our goals does instil a sense of frustration which in turn leads to aggression.
Frustration-Aggression theory was given by Dollard Miller as per which frustration leads to aggression. An aggressive person is more likely to show aggression to the weaker people who are not able to react and this process is called displacement. Situational Factors that lead to aggression-
- Learning- Among human beings, aggression is largely a result of learning rather than an inborn tendency. Individuals either learn aggression as they might find it rewarding or they might have learnt it by observing others.
- Observing an aggressive model-As per Albert Bandura’s Social Learning theory, aggression might be learnt because of observing an aggressive model either in real life or television.
- Availability of Weapons of aggression-Aggression can be easily learnt if weapons of aggression like a knife, pistol are available at the drop of a hat.
Reducing Aggression and Violence
Next in our notes on Chapter 8 Psychology Class 12, we will focus on Reducing Aggression and Violence
- Parents and teachers should not reward aggressive behaviour in any form.
- Opportunities to observe and Imitate the behaviour of aggressive models should be reduced drastically.
- Instill a positive attitude towards peace.
- Implementing social justice and equality in society may help in reducing frustration levels and promote peace.
Must Read: Chapter 7 Psychology Class 12: Social Influence And Group Processes Study Notes
Chapter 8 Psychology Class 12 talks about Health and its effects on our life. The World Health Organisation(WHO) includes biological, psychological and social aspects in defining health. It focuses on overall aspects of health rather than just physical well-being. Factors associated with physical well-being are-
- Cognitions: They are defined as the level of awareness or information about disease and beliefs about how it is caused and its treatment.
- Behaviour-Behaviour medicine is a new discipline that seeks to alleviate stress due to diseases through behaviour modification.
- Social and Cultural Factors-They influence our physiological responses and socio-cultural factors are relative in nature not absolute.
Impact of Television On Behaviour
According to Chapter 8 Psychology Class 12, The impact of television on behaviour is explained as follows-
- T.V provides a large amount of information in the attractive form in visual mode and thus, it is a powerful medium of instruction.
- Watching television frequently may hinder the children’s ability to concentrate on one target, their creativity and their social interactions as well.
- Watching violent and aggressive shows on television may instil aggression and negativity in the viewer whereas some studies also suggest that it may lead to the catharsis that is opening up of all the suppressed emotions and thus, facilitating emotional unburdening.
- Watching too much television leads to the development of a consumerist attitude as a plethora of products are advertised on television and thus, the viewer gets attracted by it and feels like buying it.
Must Read: Psychological Disorders Class 12 Notes
Chapter 8 Psychology Class 12 NCERT Solutions
Concept of personal space is important as it helps in understanding negative effects of
crowding, defining social relationships etc.
Pro-environmental behaviour includes actions that protect the environment from problems and promote a healthy environment. Ways to promote pro-environmental behaviour are listed below-
Reducing air and noise pollution.
Managing disposal of garbage sensibly.
Planting trees and ensuring their care
It is defined as a sound that is irritating and annoying to hear and it does impact our health.
Effects of noise are explained below-
Noise doesn’t have much impact in the case of a simple mental task like counting numbers etc.
incase of an interesting task as well, noise doesn’t affect the performance.
Explore: Sample Papers for Psychology Class 12
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