Biology Projects for Class 12 CBSE Students

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Biology Project for Class 12 (1)

Biology is an important branch of science, it is the study of life, living things and the evolution of life. CBSE curriculum for class 12 includes investigatory biology projects which help the students to understand the fundamental theories. This blog will provide you with details on how to prepare a biology project for class 12 with some ideas topics and more. 

Biology Projects for Class 12

Investigating the pH of a water sample

It is important to monitor the chemical properties of the water we drink or use every day. The permissible pH of the water that is safe for our life and health is 6.5-8.5. If the pH is 3 to 5 it is too acidic for the survival of most organisms. Below the pH of 4.5, fishes die and only a small number of acid-tolerant insects survive. Likewise, a pH of more than 8.5 is too basic for the survival of most organisms.

Materials Required: Universal indicator, litmus paper and different water samples.

Credits: Easy Learning

To study the effect of pH on seed germination 

Aim: Seed germination is affected by the pH of the germinating medium. The amount and type of various minerals and quantity and quality of humus control the pH in soils. A specific level of pH is required for different seeds for maximum germination. The level of pH also affects the growth and development, reproduction and metabolism activities of the plant.

Materials Required: 125 seeds each of different types, pH buffers, distilled water, Petri dishes and blotting paper.

Credits: Joe Willis

Growing Yeast: Sugar Fermentation

Yeast is classified as a fungus and is made up of eukaryotic microbes, i.e, they have cells with nuclei. Fermentation is the process of breaking down a substance by bacteria, microorganisms or yeast. Yeast gets activated when mixed with sugar as it breaks down due to fermentation. Yeast alone or when mixed with water does not give any reaction.

Materials Required: 3 clear cups, sugar, water, permanent marker.

Credits: The Sci Guys

Effect of Sugar on Bean Plant Growth

Aim: To determine whether plants grew stronger and healthier with the addition of sugar while watering

Abstract: Sugar is a source of energy. When sugar is added to water while watering plants, the plants should grow healthier and stronger as they get additional energy from the sugar. This could be observed by visual inspection and measurement of plant samples with and without sugar for comparison.

Material Required: Bean seeds, distilled water, water with added sugar, cotton, beaker.

Credits: BASF Science Club

Effects of Diet on Blood Glucose

Aim: To investigate the relationship between blood glucose and diet in non-diabetic people.

Abstract: a person’s blood glucose level rises after consumption of a high carbohydrate meal. Likewise, blood glucose would be low if a person consumes a low carbohydrate diet.

Materials Required: Measuring the blood glucose level in 4 non-diabetic persons using a glucometer before meals and then one hour, two hours and 3 hours after eating.

Factors Affecting Nodule Formation in Legumes

Aim: To determine which factors are important in the formation of nodules on legumes.

Abstract: Rhizobium leguminosarum bacteria fix nitrogen for a legume plant and in return, the bacteria get shelter and nutrients in a nodule.

Materials Required: 12 pots, 2 bags of vermiculite, a bag of potting soil, 36 snow pea seeds, Bacteria (Rhizobium leguminosarum), nutrient broth, an inoculating loop, and a Bunsen burner.

Credits: BioWiz

Does the Color of Light Affect Plant Growth

Aim: To observe how different light colours affect plant growth

Materials Required: 5 boxes with different coloured transparencies(red, blue, green, yellow and clear)on top and front, seeds, potting plant, rulers.

Procedure: Place plant pots under different boxes let them grow and record their measurements.

The Speed of Sprouting Seeds

Aim: To determine the speed of growth of bean seeds in different germinating solutions.

Materials Required: 5 sets of 10 bean seeds each, distilled water, hydrogen peroxide, malt, humic acid, potassium nitrate, fish emulsion, coffee filters, cups.

Procedure: Soak the bean seed in separate cups containing- distilled water, hydrogen peroxide, malt, humic acid, potassium nitrate, and fish emulsion. Keep the seeds damn by placing them in between coffee filters. Record germination results over a period of 4 days.

How Does Mold Grow

Mold is a fungus that grows with the help of nutrients and water. In-home mold grows over stale food, like bread, fruits, cheese, meat etc. 

Materials Required: Plastic zip bags, different types of foods(fruits, bread, cheese, meat), spray bottle, water.

How Does Microwave Radiation Affect Different Organisms

Aim: To observe how microwave radiation affects fungi, bacteria, and plant life.

Abstract: Microwave ovens radiate high levels of energy resulting in heating up certain ingredients and fats in the food. Other substances remain unaffected.

Materials Required: Radish seeds, baker’s yeast, Petri dishes with agar, paper towels, bowls, gloves, microwave, notepad and pen.

Credits: Billy F

Also Read: Chemistry Project for Class 12: Topics & Sample Projects

Format of Writing Biology Project for class 12

  1. Title of the investigatory project
  2. Aim
  3. Objectives
  4. Principle
  5. Materials needed 
  6. Method
  7. Result
  8. Analysis and Interpretation 
  9. Conclusion 
  10. References

Sample Biology Project for Class 12

Title: Mitosis in Onion Root Tip Cells

Aim: To observe the different stages of mitosis in onion cells


  • To understand the process and different stages of mitosis
  • Prepare specimens of onion roots to visualise all stages of mitosis.
  • Use an analytical technique to determine the relative length of each stage of mitosis.

Principle: Onion cells have 8 chromosomes. During cell division, the two strands of the DNA double helix separate, and for each original strand, a new complementary strand is produced, for the process of DNA replication. This is followed by the process of mitosis which assures that each daughter cell receives one copy of each of the replicated chromosomes. During this chromosomes pass through several stages of mitosis. These stages include interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase.

Materials needed: A fresh onion, small beaker, Muriatic acid(10% HCL), 0.5% Toluidine blue, forceps, scalpel, needle, toothpick, distilled water, dropper, gloves, microscope slides and coverslips, dissecting microscope and compound light microscope.


  • Place 3-4 toothpicks inside the onion and put it in a jar of water with the onion root side down. Wait for a few days for the roots to grow
  • Once the roots have grown, remove the onion from the water and cut about 5mm off the tips of the roots using a scalpel.
  • Put the root tip in a beaker and pour muriatic acid in it. Uses gloves and safety goggles. Allow the roots to soak in the acid for 20 mins
  • Use forceps to remove the root tip from the acid and place it on a microscope slide. Using a dropper, put 3-4 drops of distilled water over it.
  • Using a scalpel, trim the roots to 2mm and then using a needle slice it into 2 or more lengthwise sections.
  • Using a dropper, put 2-3 drops of Toluidine blue and wait for 2 minutes. Put the coverslip on and soak excess dye using a paper towel.
  • Observe the slide under a microscope, first at the lowest magnification and then at the highest.
  • Once you’re able to identify the different stages of mitosis, draw them.
  • Now, count the cells in each stage and record them using tick marks.
  • Once you have counted at least 1000 cells, convert your tick marks to numbers. Graph your results with a bar graph.


Stages of MitosisNumber of cells (for example)Per cent of cell
Metaphase 68.9%

Analysis and Interpretation: (Prepare a pie chart and write your interpretation based on your result)

Conclusion: After DNA replication, onion cells go through different stages of mitosis.

  • Agrochemicals and their effects
  • Population density  of plants
  • The ecological role of some animals observed in a local area
  • To make an inventory of local tree, shrub and herb
  • Study The Effect Of A Local Industry On Environment
  • Study Of The Genetic Markers In The Human Population
  • Inventory of weeds in aquatic bodies/agricultural fields
  • Inventory of birds in your locality, their ecological role as scavengers, pollinators, etc.
  • Impact of local industry on the  environment and the remedial measures taken by the industry
  • Investigating The Biochemical(also called biological oxygen demand [BOD]) of a water sample as a pollution indicator.
  • Quantitative analysis of phytoplankton in a water body
  • To Study of Drug Resistance In Bacteria Using Antibiotics
  • To Study the Coagulable And Non-Coagulable Milk Proteins
  • The ability of Curry and Cinnamon to Inhibit Bacterial Growth
  • Which Cheese Grows Mold The Fastest
  • Effect of Cannabis on the Human Body
  • Study on gene therapy 
  • How Cigarettes Affect Your Health
  • Study on Probiotics and their Preparation
  • The Way Blood Works
  • Human genome project 
  • Eye Disorders in Children and Adolescents
  • Ozone Depletion
  • Diffusion vs food colouring
  • Coffee addiction

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