Gaganyaan Mission: Everything About India’s Human Space Flight

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All About the Gaganyaan Mission

During the celebrations of the Indian Independence Day in 2018, Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced ISRO’s Gaganyaan mission. After the success of Chandrayan and Aditya L1, India is aiming to become the fourth nation to have successfully sent a human spaceflight. In 2024, ISRO will be embarking on another major milestone in the history of India’s space exploration. Recent updates state that an unmanned Gaganyaan trial launch will be conducted on April 24 2024. As the day is around the corner, students must stay updated about the related news. To help you out, here is a comprehensive blog on the Gaganyaan mission. Read all about what is Gaganyaan, its significance, who are the astronauts, and more details. 

What is the Gaganyaan Mission of ISRO?

  • In simple words, Gaganyaan is India’s first human spaceflight mission. 
  • It aims to demonstrate the successful launching of a human spaceflight of three astronauts into the Low Earth Orbit (LEO). 
  • Gaganayaan is a three-day mission, which also aims to bring the astronauts back safely.
  • To ensure the safety and security of the crew, the Government of India has approved two unmanned missions before the final manned mission Gaganyaan. 

What is the Purpose of the Gaganyaan Project?

ISRO’s next space exploration mission, the Gaganayaan project, is not just another attempt to find what lies out there. Instead, it holds great significance for the future of this country. According to ISRO, the purpose of Gaganyaan is:

  • To successfully craft a safe launch vehicle for astronauts
  • To demonstrate the success of human spaceflight in LEO or Low Earth Orbit
  • To provide a life support system and keep the astronauts safe in space
  • To make arrangements for the crew’s escape in case of emergency
  • To facilitate proper training and medical care of the crew

Also Read: Gaganyaan Mission 2023: The Mission Will End To Which Planet?

Gaganyaan Mission Launch Date

The official sources have not released any update about the Gaganyaan mission launch date. However, in a recent interview, ISRO Chairman S Somnath said that India will conduct an uncrewed mission, an airdrop test on April 24. 

This test flight mission will be followed by two more unmanned missions, which might take place in 2025. 

Orbital Module of the Gaganyaan Mission

The Orbital Module (OM) of Gaganyaan is one of the most crucial components. It comprises the Crew Module (CM) and Service Module (SM).

Crew Module

  • The crew module of Gaganyaan’s orbital module acts as the habitable space for the crew.
  • It is carefully engineered to provide an Earth-like environment.
  • It consists of a pressurized metallic Inner Structure and an unpressurised External Structure.
  • It also features a Thermal Protection System (TPS) to protect the astronauts from aerodynamic heating.
  • The crew module also increases the safety of the crew as it allows re-entry till touchdown. 

Service Module 

  • The service module is used to provide the necessary support to the crew module. 
  • It is an unpressurized structure that contains numerous other systems to aid the crew module.  

Also Read: Proposed Mission Duration of Gaganyaan

Source: Easy Drawing SA

Which Launch Vehicle is Used for the Gaganyaan Mission?

  • ISRO’s LVM3 rocket has been identified as the official launch vehicle for its Gaganyaan mission. 
  • The launcher consists of a solid stage, a liquid stage, and a cryogenic stage.
  • The HLVM3 can launch the Orbital Module to the Low Earth Orbit of about 400 km. 
  • Interestingly, the launcher has been re-configured to adjust to the diverse human rating requirements accordingly. 

Gaganyaan Mission Astronauts

In February 2024, India revealed the names of its three astronauts whom the Gaganyaan mission aims to send to an orbit of 400 km. during an event at the ISRO centre in Thiruvananthapuram, the four astronauts were described as “dreamers, adventurers and valiant men preparing to go into space”.

These officers of the Indian Air Force are:

  • Group Captain Prashanth Balakrishnan Nair
  • Group Captain Ajit Krishnan
  • Group Captain Angad Pratap
  • Wing Commander Shubhanshu Shukla.
Source: I Z art and craft

Also Read: Gaganyaan Mission 2023: Crew Members of This Mission

Why is the Gaganyaan Mission Important for India?

Owing to technological developments and scientific advancements, over 600 people have travelled to Space till now. So why is the success of the Gaganyaan mission crucial for India?

  • Human Spaceflight Capability: Till now, only three countries have successfully sent a human spaceflight. It includes the USA, Russia, and China. The success of Gaganyaan will establish India as the fourth nation to achieve this capability. 
  • Technological advancements: The success of this mission will also showcase the technological and scientific advancements of India on a global scale. 
  • Self-reliance: The success of Gaganyaan will also highlight the self-sufficiency of India’s ISRO in conducting its space launches, astronaut training, and other related activities. 
  • Space research: Gaganyaan might also encourage future space exploration attempts. 
  • International collaboration: There are high chances that the success of Gaganyaan might pave the way for international collaboration in future international space missions.  

Gaganyaan Budget 2024

The exact budget for the Gaganyaan Mission 2024 is not known till now. However, the Indian Government has announced a budget of Rs 13,042.75 crore to the Department of Space and ₹7,313.73 crore to space research for the fiscal year 2024- 2025 in its interim budget. 

What is the Total Cost of the Gaganyaan Programme?

According to ISRO, the total cost of the Gaganyaan Programme is somewhere around 9023.00 crores.

Also Read: ISRO Gaganyaan Mission: Cost and Objective

What are the Collaborating Agencies Involved in the Gaganyaan Mission?

Here is a list of the Indian agencies collaborating with ISRO to ensure the success of this mission:

  • Indian Armed Forces
  • Defence Research Development organisation
  • Indian maritime agencies – Indian Navy, Indian Coast Guard, Shipping Corporation of India, National Institute of Oceanography, National Institute of Ocean Technology.
  • Indian Meteorological Department
  • CSIR Labs
  • Academic institutes
  • Industry partners

What are the New Technologies Required to Conduct the Gaganyaan Programme?

Below we have mentioned the required new technologies for the success of the Gaganyaan mission:

  • Human-rated launch vehicle
  • Crew escape systems
  • Habitable orbital module
  • Life support system
  • Crew selection and training 

Also Read: Who is ISRO’s Gaganyaan Project Director?

Who is the Female Robot for the Gaganyaan Mission?

As mentioned above, ISRO will send two unmanned missions before Gaganyaan to test safety levels and technological reliability. The first unmanned mission will be carried out in 2024, followed by the second mission. Interestingly, the second mission will be carried out by a woman robot named Vyommitra. 

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