What is the Full Form of CRISPR?

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Form of CRISPR

The most common full form of CRISPR is clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats. It is a type of defense system found in bacteria. Moreover, it lays down the foundation of CRISPR-Cas9 which is a popular tool for genome editing. Interestingly, the term CRISPR-Cas9 is used in the field of genome engineering in connection with certain systems that can help researchers target and edit genetic codes at certain points.

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CRISPR History 

It is believed that Franciso Mojica, a famous scientist located at the University of Alicante, discovered CRISPR. According to his theories and findings, Franciso believed that CRISPR was a part of the bacterial defense system against viruses where the bacteria kills the invader and enzymes or proteins cut the remains of the virus’s genetic code into smaller fragments. Accordingly, these fragments are later used to identify and destroy the invaders when they attack again. 

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How Does the CRISPR System Work?

As mentioned above, the full form of CRISPR is clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats. These spacers are converted into short RNA sequences that help find and match specific DNA sequences. When the right DNA is located, CAS9, an enzyme made by the CRISPR system, sticks to it and chops it into smaller pieces.  

Researchers can use these altered Cas9 types to trigger gene expression rather than chopping the DNA. Such techniques aid researchers in studying the function of genes. Moreover, CRISPR-Cas9 is a more efficient substitute for other similar tools. Since it is self-sufficient in subdividing DNA, you do not have to pair CRISPR with other cleaving enzymes. 

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