The class 10th Economics NCERT book deals with the basic ideas and concepts that constitute the foundation of Economics. The book offers insights into the notion of development, national income, and more against India’s backdrop. The first chapter in the Economics section of class 10 social science delves into the idea of development. The chapter addresses many ideas, from the nature of development to its common determinants. Besides, Development class 10 notes for class 10 Economics also focus on finding more sustainable ways of development. Here, we delve into the first chapter of Economics which is on Development, to give you insightful details and study notes. So be ready with your pen and notebook to note and make Development class 10 notes with us.
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What is Development?
According to the chapter Development class 10 notes, development defines the aspirations of a healthier future. It promises real growth via enhancing and increasing total income and living standards of a person in society. In economic terms, development connotes the advancement of a country or a region in terms of income and other correlated factors for a better life. As a policy objective, it seeks to improve a country’s economic growth and public well-being.
Moreover, on a national scale, development is associated with the overall improvement in all people’s lives. The idea looks into the progress of the system as a whole for the benefit of the people. Also, different people have different development goals.
However, like Amartya Sen, many economists are of the view that development involves many dimensions in addition to the economic angle. While economic growth is undoubtedly essential and essential, the social, political, and psychological angles cannot be overlooked.
Characteristics of Development
Development certainly has some characteristics that help in expanding the understanding of this concept. This chapter in class 10th Economics throws light on the two most important aspects that characterize the idea of development.
Development does not have a single definition. It holds different meanings for different sets of people. While studying what is development in class 10 and making Development class 10 notes, it is important to remember its multifaceted nature. There can be different and conflicting ideas about this notion. Besides, what constitutes development for one can mean harm to another. For instance, industrialists set up their hubs by clearing up large stretches of land. This may comprise growth and expansion for them. However, it ends up displacing the inhabitants of the concerned land, making them homeless. The planning for national development concerns itself with finding ways to resolve the conflicting ideas of development. It strives to bring forth a unifying notion of development that caters to the needs of many, if not all, sections of the population. Therefore, the idea of development is highly varied, as discussed in Development class 10 notes of Economics.
How do we measure development? Let us know about the multidimensional nature of development in this blog on Development class 10 notes. There happens to be no meter or instrument for measuring this idea. However, one can quantify and measure a region’s level of development against several dimensions. Therefore, the idea of development is multidimensional. Income was earlier considered to be the most accurate determinant of development. The World Bank created the criteria of per capita income. Per capita income or PCI is the ratio of a country’s total income divided by its total population as a measurement of development. However, with evolving times and the changing face of the earth, more dimensions have been added. Class 10th Economics and this blog on Development class 10 notes throws light upon some of these dimensions like health, infrastructure, education, etc. Besides, the notion of sustainable development has also gained much importance in recent years.
Comparison of Development in different Countries
While reading Economics chapter 1 of class 10 Social Science, you might have come across the categorization of developed, developing, and under-developed countries. How is this distinction arrived at? What are the criteria for comparing the development level in countries with a distinct culture, capital, infrastructure, and more? Let us try to find out the answer to these questions in our blog on Development class 10 notes.
As already mentioned, the concept of development is multidimensional. Therefore, the measurement of a country or region’s development entails a few common dimensions. While experts considered income as the most important attribute earlier, the definition drastically changed with time.
Having said that, we can compare the development of different economies/ countries/ states on the basis of their respective per capita income. It is calculated by dividing the total income of the country with the total population. A country with higher per capita income is more developed than a country having less per capita income. One cannot differentiate or compare on the basis of national income because each country or state has different population level and rate.
Human Development Index
Uptil now, we got to know the multidimensional nature of development. Let us now delve further to know how to assess the multidimensional nature of development in our blog on Development class 10 notes.
The Human Development Index concept was derived by social scientists to assess the multidimensional nature of development. This index provides a scientific framework to quantify and assess three key determinants of development. These determinants are discussed below:
- Access to health: life expectancy at birth determines the health factor of a population. Life expectancy ascertains the average number of years that a person is expected to live in a particular area.
- Access to education: literacy rate, coupled with gross enrollment ratio, assess the population’s educational resourcefulness. The literacy rate measures the number of people in a region with the ability to read and write. At the same time, the gross enrollment ratio is concerned with the admission of students into primary and secondary school and higher education.
- Access to opportunities: purchasing power parity presents a clear picture of a country’s standard of living and measures this factor. Per capita income is a good determinant of a population’s purchasing power parity. It is the ratio of people’s total income and their total size.
Other Criteria to Measure Development
The GDP of the nation or the per capita income is not the only criteria to measure the development of a country or to compare the rate of development in 2 or more economies/countries/states. As we have discussed earlier, the notion of development or the meaning of the same changes from population to population of different countries in different parts of the world. Hence not only people want better income, infrastructure and GDP. They also want and prioritise things like education, literacy rate, health, freedom, water, security etc.
Some other criteria or components or parameters to measure development in an economy or country are as follows:
- Infant Mortality Rate: it refers to the number of children that die before the age of just 1 year as a proportion of 1,000 live births in a particular year.
- Literacy Rate: It refers or measures the proportion of the literate population in the population of age 7 and above.
- Net Attendance Ratio: It refers to the total number of children of age group 6 to 10 years that are attending school as a percentage of the total number of children in the same age group.
- Body Mass Index: Also known as BMI, it is one way to find out if the population of the country is undernourished/malnourished. It is calculated by dividing the weight of a person (in kg) by the square of the height (in metres). If the figure obtained is less than 18.5, it is said that the person would be considered undernourished. On the contrary, if the BMI is more than 25, the person is considered overweight or obese.
In easy terms and using easy words, sustainable development is being referred to that development in a country or an economy which is done without hampering the environment. It is regarded as the process of development that mutually satisfies the present needs of society without compromising the future needs of the future generation. Hence, this type of development is known to be called sustainable development. Therefore for sustainable development of any country around the world, the people should or must use non-renewable resources and resources like groundwater, which takes a long time to replenish in moderation.
Drawbacks of Development
The idea of development certainly denotes a positive step forward. On paper, it talks of a country’s growth and welfare in a multifaceted manner. However, there are a few downsides to uncontrolled development as well. While elaborating on the concept of development in Development class 10 notes, the first chapter of Economics in class 10 also looks into the adverse consequences borne out of development. Unabashed natural resources can lead to their complete exhaustion, leaving none for the generations to come. Besides, the perils of progress are also visible in the increasing global warming levels that threaten our climate today. Sustainable development connotes the idea of development within limits. It seeks to use all resources in a limited and wise manner that saves future generations’ ample resources. In sum, the premise is to move forward while keeping in mind those who will come in the future. Countries worldwide have come together to promote the cause of sustainable development through many international agreements like the Paris Treaty 2015.
Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Question Bank
- What is the idea of development? How can you compare levels of development in different countries?
- Is per capita income an accurate measure of development? Justify your answer with examples.
- What is the Human Development Index? In what ways is HDI a comprehensive measurement of development?
- Are there any downsides to development? List a few that you consider important.
- What is sustainable development? How can it help in overcoming the negative consequence of development?
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