The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Notes

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the rise of nationalism in europe

The Europe we fantasize about today was not even an independent nation back in the 19th century. Do you want to know what ignited the feeling of nationalism in the folks of Europe? Class 10 History chapter on The Rise of Nationalism in Europe will tell you about prominent causes and incidents that lead to the Independence of Europe. You may find the chapter elaborative in the NCERT, thus, here we are with simple notes on the topic. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe class 10 notes will help you learn the subject in a better way and serve as the best revision material before board exams.      

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10

‘Vision of World’ by Frédéric Sorrieu. The chapter begins with understanding Frédéric Sorrieu’s vision of the world. The accomplished French artist created four prints in 1848, which presents his vision of a dream world based on Social Republics and democracy. Here is the rise of nationalism in Europe class 10 important points:

  • The first print demonstrates Europeans and Americans travelling and paying homage to the Statue of Liberty as they pass by. Through the print, it was showcased that the Torch of Enlightenment is held by a female figurine one hand and the Charter of the Rights of Man in the other.
  • In his utopian world, Frédéric Sorrieu envisioned people of the world being grouped as individual nations, each identified through their national flags and costume. 
  • In the foreground of the earth lies the devastated remains of the absolutist institutions’ symbols.
  • He also visualized a procession led by Switzerland and the United States, followed by Germany and France. Following the Germans are the Austrians and the people of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Poland, Lombardy, Ireland, Hungary, England, and Russia.
  • Christ, angels, and saints from heaven above watched the scene. This symbolized fraternity among different nations of the world.

As stated in class 10 History the rise of nationalism in Europe, during the 19th century in Europe, the sense of nationalism revolutionized the country, bringing radical changes in the political and societal scenarios. This resulted in the concept of the nation-state. 

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 CBSE Summary

Credits: Class 10 Studies

Also Read: Money and Credit Class 10 Notes

Making of Nationalism in Europe

Switzerland, Italy, and Germany were divided into cantons, duchies, and kingdoms. Their rulers had their own autonomous territories.

The New Middle Class and Aristocracy

The dominant class during those times was the Aristocracy. The peasantry comprised the majority of the population. A new kind of social group came into existence, the working-class population and the middle classes. It was made up of professionals, businessmen, and industrialists.

Liberal Nationalism: What did it stand for?

Liberalism is derived from the Latin term ‘liber’, which means free. The freedom of the right to vote and to get elected was granted exclusively to men who owned property. All women were excluded from voting rights. 

A customs union also known as Zollverein was formed. This was done at the initiative of Prussia and was joined by most of the German states. Tariff barriers were abolished by this union. The number of currencies was also reduced to two from thirty.

A New Conservatism after 1815

  • The European Governments in the year 1815 were overcome with a spirit of Conservatism. Ideas and beliefs such as social hierarchies, monarchy, property and the Church should be preserved, according to the Conservatists.
  • Representatives of the European powers in 1815 which were Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia drew up a settlement about Europe by meeting in Vienna.
  • They felt that a dynamic economy, the abolition of serfdom and feudalism along with an efficient bureaucracy could strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe.
  • The liberal nationalists criticsed the new conservative order.

The Revolutionaries

  • Many secret societies were formed in European states in 1815. They were formed to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas. 
  • Giuseppe Mazzini, the Italian revolutionary was the founder of two more underground societies, first, Young Italy in Marseilles. 
  • He also founded Young Europe in Berne. The members of this society were like-minded young men from Germany, Italy, Poland and France.

The French Revolution and the Idea of the Nation

The next important subtopic in this blog on the cbse class 10 the rise of nationalism in Europe is on the French Revolution and the Idea of the Nation. Nationalism arrived with the French Revolution in 1789, and the resulting political and constitutional reforms resulted in the transfer of authority from the king to a body of French citizens. Various policies and practices, such as the concepts of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen, were introduced ( the citizen). The tricolour was selected to replace the previous French flag. Napoleon destroyed democracy in France, and the Civil Code of 1804 known as the Napoleonic Code abolished all birthrights, created equality before the law, and protected the right to property.

Making of Nationalism in Europe    

During the rise of nationalism in Europe, Switzerland, Italy, and Germany were classified into cantons, duchies, and kingdoms, and each ruler had autonomous territories. Here are some of the key features of the topic mentioned in the rise of nationalism in europe class 10 CBSE- 

  • Evolution of the Concept of Liberal Nationalism
  • The New Middle Class and the Aristocracy
  • A New Conservatism Post 1815
  • The Revolutionaries

Branches of Social Sciences

Age of Revolutions: 1830-1848     

In July 1830, the liberal revolutionaries overthrew the Bourbon Kings and established a constitutional monarchy headed by Louis Philippe. This led to a revolution in Brussels, inspiring Belgium to break free from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Let us go through some important pointers and understand the event in depth of class 10 social science the rise of nationalism in Europe:

  • 1831 – Culture and patriotic romanticism played an integral role in establishing the idea of a nation. In 1831, an armed rebellion took place against the Russian rule and imposition of the Russian language and was eventually crushed.
  • 1848 – Due to increase in population, widespread unemployment and food shortage caused major hardships for people in Europe. It is also in this year that a revolution by the educated middle class took place, demanding building a nation-state based on parliamentary principles. On 18th May 1848, elected representatives of an all-German National Assembly took their positions in the Frankfurt parliament. 
  • In 1848, empowered women established their political associations and participated in political demonstrations and meetings, but were still denied Suffrage Rights during Assembly elections. 

Also Read: List of Exams after 10th

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Important Dates

1797 Beginning of Napoleonic war
1804 Napoleonic code introduced
1814-15 Fall of Napolean
1821 Greek fights for Independence
1832 Greek becomes independent
1848 Revolutions in Europe
1855 Kingdom of Sardinia participates in war
1870 Unification of Italy
1861 Victor Emmanuel II becomes the king of United Italy and Rome
1871 Unification of Germany
1941 World War 1 Begins

Making of Italy and Germany 

The establishment of Italy and Germany as independent nations went on to be one of the most significant events of the rise of nationalism in Europe. Let us study this in detail-

Italy Unified: In the 19th century, Italy had seven states, and among these, all regions of Sardinia-Piedmont were dominated by Italian princely houses. In 1830, Giuseppe Mazzini formed the Young Italy movement led by Chief Minister Cavour. In 1859, Sardinia-Piedmont defeated Austria. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was declared the king of united Italy.  

Germany Unified: The chapter on the Rise in Nationalism in Europe came to a halt after Italy and Germany unified as nation-states. Prussia took the lead for national unification. In 1871, William I – the Prussian king – was declared the German Emperor. The banking, judicial, legal, and currency system in Germany was modernized.

The Strange Case of Britain

Through the topic of the rise of nationalism in Europe class 10 chapter 1 of the strange case of Britain, you would learn how Great Britain became a powerful nation and grew in importance and wealth. The creation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ took place in 1707 via the Act of Union between England and Scotland. In the year 1801, finally, Ireland became an official part of the UK. The English language, and the national anthem (God Save Our Noble King), and the British Flag (Union Jack) were promoted actively.

Visualising the Nation 

The rise of nationalism in Europe class 10 NCERT notes showcases how artists from the 18th and 19th centuries represented nations as female figures and the country as a person. In the era of the French Revolution, female figurines were used to portray the concepts of Justice, Liberty, and Republic. In the chapter, Justice is visualized as a blindfolded woman holding a pair of weighing scales, and Liberty is shown as a red cap or the broken chain.

Nationalism and Imperialism  

The last topic of class 10 the rise of nationalism in Europe notes is nationalism and imperalism. After the last quarter of the 19th century, nationalism in Europe did not exist. The Ottoman Empire was set up in the Balkans region, comprising the most tensioned regions that were known for their internal reforms. A series of wars took place during this period, and finally, the First World War took place. Europe was devastated because Nationalism aligned with Imperialism.

New anti-imperial movements surfaced – all with the focus to build independent nation-states. Despite rivalry, the concept of ‘nation-states’ was regarded as universal and natural.

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 MCQs

  • When did the French Revolution start?
  1. 1789
  2.  1879
  3. 1780
  4. 1769
  • Which countries did the French armies move into?
  1. Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, and much of Italy
  2. Holland and Italy
  3. Holland and Belgium
  4. .Switzerland and Italy
  • Which regions were the Civil Code exported to?
  1. Switzerland and Italy
  2. Italy and Germany
  3. Switzerland and Germany
  4. Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in Italy, and Germany
  • What changes did Napoleon bring about in the towns?
  1. Transport and communication systems were improved. Peasants, artisans, workers, and new businessmen enjoyed newfound freedom.
  2. Transport and communication systems were improved.
  3. Peasants, artisans, workers, and new businessmen had to pay tax.
  4. guild restrictions remained as they were.
  • In which year did Louis Philippe flee and the National Assembly was proclaimed a Republic?
  1. 1846
  2. 1848
  3. 1845
  4. 1847
  • Who had sought to put together a coherent program for the unitary Italian Republic in the 1830s?
  1. Metternich
  2. Otto von Bismarck
  3.  Giuseppe Mazzini
  4. Napoleon
  • In January 1871 who was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles?
  1.  William II
  2. Otto von Bismarck
  3. Kaiser William I
  4.  Metternich
  • When was Ireland forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom?
  1. 1798
  2. 1801
  3. 1800
  4. 1799
  • When did the Treaty of  Vienna take place and who were the participants?
  1. 1816, Britain, Russia, Prussia
  2. 1815, Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria
  3.  1820, Britain and Russia
  4. 1817, Russia, Prussia, Austria
  • What is Suffrage?
  1. Right to property
  2. Right to Justice
  3.  Right to vote
  4. Right to complain

Answers: 1, 1, 4, 1, 2, 3, 3, 2, 2, 3

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 NCERT PDF

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Notes PDF

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Questions

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Extra Questions

Here are some of the important questions of the rise of nationalism in Europe:

  1. What is French revolution?
  2. How did the the idea of the nation-state emerge?
  3. What do you understand by Napolenic code?
  4. What led to world war 1?
  5. Explain all the reform by Napolean.


Write a note on Guiseppe Mazzini.

Guiseppe Mazzini was a famous activist, politician, journalist for the unification of Italy. He was a major contributor to the independence struggle in various parts of Italy. He was an advocate of republicanism and envisioned a united and independent Italy.

Write a note on Count Camillo de Cavour.

He was the Chief Minister of the Sardinia-Piedmont state movement and was known for his works. He was popular for a diplomatic alliance with France.

Write a note on the Greek war of independence.

1821 and 1829 against the Ottoman empire led to a successful independence day by Greek leaders and revolutionaries. French, Russia and Great Britain supported them.

We hope this blog has helped you get familiar with and building your concept the rise of nationalism in Europe class 10 important notes. Leverage Eduexperts are here to guide you about the best stream that you may choose after completing class 10th to get started on your dream career. Hurry Up! Book an e-meeting with us!

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