Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar also known as the Father of the Constitution of India, was an Indian jurist, economist and leader of the untouchables currently known as Dalits. He headed the committee that drafted the Constitution of India from the consensus achieved in the Constituent Assembly debates. Under the first cabinet of Jawaharlal Nehru, he served as Minister of Law and Justice from 1947 to 1951. Let’s explore everything you need to know about Dr B.R. Ambedkar and his educational journey.
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Dr. B.R.Ambedkar Education
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar was an intelligent student. He enrolled and passed his 10th from Elphinstone High School. Then in the following years, he entered Elphinstone College which was affiliated with the University of Bombay. In 1912, he obtained his degree in economics and political science from Bombay University. After that, he applied to study at Columbia University to obtain a master’s degree in Economics. And by the time he completed his master’s degree, he gave one of his thesis called ‘Ancient Indian Commerce. Also, he applied for the London School Of Economics and got selected. He then became a political science professor at Sydenham College of Commerce and Economics but later decided to continue his further studies and completed PhD degree in 1927 and was also awarded a Doctorate by the University of Columbia in the same year. He also trained in the law at Gray’s Inn, London.
Famous Books by Dr B.R.Ambedkar
- Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development (1916)
- Mook Nayak (1920)
- The Problem of the Rupee: its origin and its solution (1923)
- Bahishkrut Bharat (1927)
- Janta (1930)
- The Annihilation of Caste (1936)
- Federation Versus Freedom (1939)
- Thoughts on Pakistan (1940)
- Ranade, Gandhi and Jinnah (1943)
- Mr. Gandhi and Emancipation of Untouchables(1943)
- What Congress and Gandhi have done to the Untouchables (1945)
- Pakistan Or Partition Of India (1945)
- State and Minorities (1947)
- Who were the Shudras (1948)
- Maharashtra as a Linguistic Province (1948)
- The Untouchables (1948)
- Buddha Or Karl Marx (1956)
- The Buddha and his Dhamma (1957)
- Riddles in Hinduism (2008)
- Manu and the Shudras
Famous Quotes by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
1.”They cannot make history who forget history”.
2. “Be Educated, Be Organised, and Be Agitated”
3. “I like the religion that teaches liberty, equality, and fraternity”
4. “Life should be great rather than long”.
5. “If I find the constitution being misused, I shall be the first to burn it.”
6. “Cultivation of mind should be the ultimate aim of human existence”.
7. “If you believe in living a respectable life, you believe in self-help which is the best help”.
8. “We must stand on our own feet and fight as best as we can for our rights. So carry on your agitation and organize your forces. Power and prestige will come to you through struggle”
9. “The history of India is nothing but a history of a mortal conflict between Buddhism and Brahmanism”.
10. “I measure the progress of a community by the degree of progress which women have achieved.”
11. “Men are mortal. So are ideas. An idea needs propagation as much as a plant needs watering. Otherwise, both will wither and die.”
12. “Every man who repeats the dogma of Mill that one country is not fit to rule another country must admit that one class is not fit to rule another class.”
14. “Political tyranny is nothing compared to the social tyranny and a reformer who defies society is a more courageous man than a politician who defies Government.”
15. “A great man is different from an eminent one in that he is ready to be the servant of the society.”
16. “Law and order are the medicine of the body politic and when the body politic gets sick, medicine must be administered.”
Achievements of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
In 1935, Ambedkar was a crucial figure in the founding of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). He was the first to propose the division of Madhya Pradesh and Bihar for better governance in 1955. He also intended to make Sanskrit the official language of the Indian union, and he ran for Lok Sabha twice but failed to win both times. His autobiography, ‘Waiting for a Visa,’ is used as a textbook at Columbia University. He was against the notion of constituency reservation and did not want the system to exist at all. He was the first Indian to obtain a Ph.D. outside of the country. Ambedkar was the one who campaigned for India’s working hours to be reduced from 14 to eight hours every day. He was a strong opponent of Article 370 of the Indian constitution, which conferred special status to the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Dr. B.R.Ambedkar served as the princely state of Baroda’s defense secretary in 1916. Working was difficult for him because he was a Dalit. People mocked him and he was frequently disregarded. He left his position as the defense secretary after years of caste prejudice and went to work as a private instructor and accountant. He then started a consultancy business, but it did not succeed. He was discriminated against because he was a Dalit. He eventually found work as a teacher at Mumbai’s Sydenham College of Commerce and Economics. Ambedkar thrived on improving the pitiful status of the untouchables in society since he himself a victim of caste prejudice. He established the “Mooknayak” weekly publication, which allowed him to critique Hindu doctrines. He was enthusiastic about ending caste inequality in India, which inspired him to form the “Bahishkrit Hitakarni Sabha.”
In 1935, he wrote ‘The Annihilation of Caste,’ a book that questioned conventional Hindu beliefs, and the following year, he published ‘Who Were the Shudras?,’ a book that detailed how the untouchables were established. Following India’s independence, he served on the military advisory committee’s board of directors and as the ‘viceroy’s executive council’s minister for labor.’ His commitment to the cause landed him the position of India’s first law minister. He was the first chairman of the Indian Constitution’s drafting committee.
He also founded India’s finance committee. His policies propelled the country forward economically and socially. In 1951, he was presented with ‘The Hindu Code Bill,’ which he refused and withdrew from the Cabinet. He ran for a seat in the Likh Sabha, but was unsuccessful. He was then elected to the Rajya Sabha, where he stayed till his death in 1955.
About Dr B.R. Ambedkar
Dr B R Ambedkar was born on 14 April 1891 at Mhow in Madhya Pradesh. His father, Ramji Maloji Sakpal was the head instructor of a military training school. Bhimabai Sakpal was the name of his mother. He belonged to the Mahar family. Mahars were among the several untouchable castes of those times in Maharashtra. He and other Dalit students were treated as untouchables. They were separated from another group of students as well as the teachers didn’t give much attention to the Dalit students. At a very small age 15, he was married to a 9-year-old girl named Ramabai. After completing his school, In 1913, Ambedkar moved to the United States after being awarded a scholarship for three years. He was a very hard working and intelligent student earning doctorates from London University and Columbia University of London.
After completing his studies, he played a major role in organizing Dalits or untouchables by creating Dalit newspapers, social and cultural institutions, initiating protests against discrimination in temple entry and access to water, and passionately promoting access to education for Dalits.
At the same time, taking the opportunities given by the British government, he filed a petition for political rights. During the Simon Commission, he then founded two political parties for contesting in elections. In 1932, Ramsay Macdonald, British Prime Minister granted the Communal Award to provide separate electorates for minorities but Gandhi was against the split in the Hindu vote and began fast until death forcing Ambedkar to agree to joint electorates. After India became independent in August 1947, he was invited by PM Jawaharlal Nehru to be the first Minister of Law and Justice and later appointed as Chairman of the Drafting Committee for the new Constitution. His influence can be seen in many aspects of the resulting Constitution like the abolition of Untouchability, emphasis on liberal democracy, etc.
The Constitution was promulgated on 26 January 1950. Dr B. R. Ambedkar resigned from his position as Minister of Law and Justice in 1951. He was confident that the new Constitution holds a solid foundation for India to build as an independent nation. Dr Ambedkar passed away on 6 December 1956 in Delhi due to diabetes.
Some Lesser Known Facts About Dr B.R. Ambedkar
- Dr. B.R. Ambedkar’s original name was actually Ambavadekar.
- Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was the first Indian to pursue a doctorate in economics abroad.
- Ambedkar played a key role in the establishment of the Reserve Bank of India in 1935.
- The Mahad Satyagraha of 1927 was Ambedkar’s first important crusade.
- Dr. B.R. Ambedkar changed the working hours in India from 14 hours to 8 hours.
- Ambedkar’s autobiography is used as a textbook at Columbia University.
- Dr. B.R. Ambedkar had opposed Article 370 of the Indian constitution
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, an Indian jurist, economist and leader of the Dalits won the Bharat Ratna award posthumously in the year 1990.
Elphinstone High School (1904-1907)
Elphinstone College (1908-1912)
Columbia University (1913-1915)
London School of Economics and Political Science (1916-1921)
London School Of Economics and Political Science (1923)
According to him, “Education is what makes a person fearless, teaches him the lesson of unity, makes him aware of his rights, and inspires him to struggle for his rights.” His slogan was- Educate, Unite, Agitate.
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