NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe (Free PDF)

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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 1: The Europe we fantasize about today was not even an independent nation back in the 19th century. Do you want to know what ignited the feeling of nationalism in the folks of Europe? Class 10 History chapter on The Rise of Nationalism in Europe will tell you about prominent causes and incidents that led to the Independence of Europe. You may find the chapter elaborative in the NCERT, thus, here we are with simple notes on the topic. NCERT Solutions Class 10 History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe notes will help you learn the subject in a better way and serve as the best revision material before board exams.      

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Summary of NCERT Class 10 History Chapter 1: The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

‘Vision of World’ by Frédéric Sorrieu. The chapter begins with understanding Frédéric Sorrieu’s vision of the world. The accomplished French artist created four prints in 1848, which present his vision of a dream world based on Social Republics and democracy. Here is the rise of nationalism in Europe class 10 important points:

  • The first print demonstrates Europeans and Americans travelling and paying homage to the Statue of Liberty as they pass by. Through the print, it was showcased that the Torch of Enlightenment is held by a female figurine in one hand and the Charter of the Rights of Man in the other.
  • In his utopian world, Frédéric Sorrieu envisioned people of the world being grouped as individual nations, each identified through their national flags and costumes. 
  • In the foreground of the earth lies the devastated remains of the absolutist institutions’ symbols.
  • He also visualized a procession led by Switzerland and the United States, followed by Germany and France. Following the Germans were the Austrians and the people of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Poland, Lombardy, Ireland, Hungary, England, and Russia.
  • Christ, angels, and saints from heaven above watched the scene. This symbolized fraternity among different nations of the world.

As stated in class 10 History of the Rise of nationalism in Europe, during the 19th century in Europe, the sense of nationalism revolutionized the country, bringing radical changes in the political and societal scenarios. This resulted in the concept of the nation-state. 

Credits: Class 10 Studies

Also Read: Money and Credit Class 10 Notes

Making of Nationalism in Europe

Switzerland, Italy, and Germany were divided into cantons, duchies, and kingdoms. Their rulers had their autonomous territories.

The New Middle Class and Aristocracy

The dominant class during those times was the Aristocracy. The peasantry comprised the majority of the population. A new kind of social group came into existence, the working-class population and the middle classes. It was made up of professionals, businessmen, and industrialists.

Liberal Nationalism: What did it stand for?

Liberalism is derived from the Latin term ‘liber’, which means free. The freedom of the right to vote and to get elected was granted exclusively to men who owned property. All women were excluded from voting rights. 

A customs union also known as Zollverein was formed. This was done at the initiative of Prussia and was joined by most of the German states. Tariff barriers were abolished by this union. The number of currencies was also reduced to two from thirty.

A New Conservatism after 1815

  • The European Governments in the year 1815 were overcome with a spirit of Conservatism. Ideas and beliefs such as social hierarchies, monarchy, property and the Church should be preserved, according to the Conservatives.
  • Representatives of the European powers in 1815 which were Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia drew up a settlement about Europe by meeting in Vienna.
  • They felt that a dynamic economy, the abolition of serfdom and feudalism along with an efficient bureaucracy could strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe.
  • The liberal nationalists criticised the new conservative order.

The Revolutionaries

  • Many secret societies were formed in European states in 1815. They were formed to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas. 
  • Giuseppe Mazzini, the Italian revolutionary was the founder of two more underground societies, first, Young Italy in Marseilles. 
  • He also founded Young Europe in Berne. The members of this society were like-minded young men from Germany, Italy, Poland and France.

The French Revolution and the Idea of the Nation

The next important subtopic in this blog on the CBSE class 10 the rise of nationalism in Europe is on the French Revolution and the Idea of the Nation. Nationalism arrived with the French Revolution in 1789, and the resulting political and constitutional reforms resulted in the transfer of authority from the king to a body of French citizens. Various policies and practices, such as the concepts of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen, were introduced ( the citizen). The tricolour was selected to replace the previous French flag. Napoleon destroyed democracy in France, and the Civil Code of 1804 known as the Napoleonic Code abolished all birthrights, created equality before the law, and protected property rights.

Making of Nationalism in Europe    

During the rise of nationalism in Europe, Switzerland, Italy, and Germany were classified into cantons, duchies, and kingdoms, and each ruler had autonomous territories. Here are some of the key features of the topic mentioned in the rise of nationalism in europe class 10 CBSE- 

  • Evolution of the Concept of Liberal Nationalism
  • The New Middle Class and the Aristocracy
  • A New Conservatism Post 1815
  • The Revolutionaries

Branches of Social Sciences

Age of Revolutions: 1830-1848     

In July 1830, the liberal revolutionaries overthrew the Bourbon Kings and established a constitutional monarchy headed by Louis Philippe. This led to a revolution in Brussels, inspiring Belgium to break free from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Let us go through some important pointers and understand the event in depth of class 10 social science the rise of nationalism in Europe:

  • 1831 – Culture and patriotic romanticism played an integral role in establishing the idea of a nation. In 1831, an armed rebellion took place against the Russian rule and imposition of the Russian language and was eventually crushed.
  • 1848 – Due to the increase in population, widespread unemployment and food shortages caused major hardships for people in Europe. It was also in this year that a revolution by the educated middle class took place, demanding the building of a nation-state based on parliamentary principles. On 18th May 1848, elected representatives of an all-German National Assembly took their positions in the Frankfurt parliament. 
  • In 1848, empowered women established their political associations and participated in political demonstrations and meetings, but were still denied Suffrage Rights during Assembly elections. 

Also Read: List of Exams after 10th

NCERT Solutions Class 10 History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism: Important Dates

1797Beginning of Napoleonic war
1804Napoleonic code introduced
1814-15Fall of Napolean
1821Greek fights for Independence
1832Greek becomes independent
1848Revolutions in Europe
1855Victor Emmanuel II became the king of United Italy and Rome
1870Unification of Italy
1861Victor Emmanuel II becomes the king of United Italy and Rome
1871Unification of Germany
1941World War 1 Begins

Making of Italy and Germany 

The establishment of Italy and Germany as independent nations went on to be one of the most significant events of the rise of nationalism in Europe. Let us study this in detail-

Italy Unified: In the 19th century, Italy had seven states, and among these, all regions of Sardinia-Piedmont were dominated by Italian princely houses. In 1830, Giuseppe Mazzini formed the Young Italy movement led by Chief Minister Cavour. In 1859, Sardinia-Piedmont defeated Austria. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was declared the king of united Italy.  

Germany Unified: The chapter on the Rise of Nationalism in Europe came to a halt after Italy and Germany unified as nation-states. Prussia took the lead for national unification. In 1871, William I – the Prussian king – was declared the German Emperor. The banking, judicial, legal, and currency system in Germany was modernized.

The Strange Case of Britain

Through the topic of the rise of nationalism in Europe class 10 chapter 1 of The Strange Case of Britain, you would learn how Great Britain became a powerful nation and grew in importance and wealth. The creation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ took place in 1707 via the Act of Union between England and Scotland. In the year 1801, finally, Ireland became an official part of the UK. The English language, and the national anthem (God Save Our Noble King), and the British Flag (Union Jack) were promoted actively.

Visualising the Nation 

The rise of nationalism in Europe class 10 NCERT notes showcases how artists from the 18th and 19th centuries represented nations as female figures and the country as a person. In the era of the French Revolution, female figurines were used to portray the concepts of Justice, Liberty, and Republic. In the chapter, Justice is visualized as a blindfolded woman holding a pair of weighing scales, and Liberty is shown as a red cap or the broken chain.

Nationalism and Imperialism  

The last topic of class 10 the rise of nationalism in Europe notes is nationalism and imperialism. After the last quarter of the 19th century, nationalism in Europe did not exist. The Ottoman Empire was set up in the Balkans region, comprising the most tensioned regions that were known for their internal reforms. A series of wars took place during this period, and finally, the First World War took place. Europe was devastated because Nationalism aligned with Imperialism.

New anti-imperial movements surfaced – all with a focus on building independent nation-states. Despite rivalry, the concept of ‘nation-states’ was regarded as universal and natural.

NCERT Solutions Class 10 History Chapter 1 MCQs

  • When did the French Revolution start?
  1. 1789
  2.  1879
  3. 1780
  4. 1769
  • Which countries did the French armies move into?
  1. Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, and much of Italy
  2. Holland and Italy
  3. Holland and Belgium
  4. .Switzerland and Italy
  • Which regions were the Civil Code exported to?
  1. Switzerland and Italy
  2. Italy and Germany
  3. Switzerland and Germany
  4. Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in Italy, and Germany
  • What changes did Napoleon bring about in the towns?
  1. Transport and communication systems were improved. Peasants, artisans, workers, and new businessmen enjoyed newfound freedom.
  2. Transport and communication systems were improved.
  3. Peasants, artisans, workers, and new businessmen had to pay tax.
  4. guild restrictions remained as they were.
  • In which year did Louis Philippe flee and the National Assembly was proclaimed a Republic?
  1. 1846
  2. 1848
  3. 1845
  4. 1847
  • Who had sought to put together a coherent program for the unitary Italian Republic in the 1830s?
  1. Metternich
  2. Otto von Bismarck
  3.  Giuseppe Mazzini
  4. Napoleon
  • In January 1871 who was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles?
  1.  William II
  2. Otto von Bismarck
  3. Kaiser William I
  4.  Metternich
  • When was Ireland forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom?
  1. 1798
  2. 1801
  3. 1800
  4. 1799
  • When did the Treaty of  Vienna take place and who were the participants?
  1. 1816, Britain, Russia, Prussia
  2. 1815, Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria
  3.  1820, Britain and Russia
  4. 1817, Russia, Prussia, Austria
  • What is Suffrage?
  1. Right to property
  2. Right to Justice
  3.  Right to vote
  4. Right to complain

Answers: 1, 1, 4, 1, 2, 3, 3, 2, 2, 3

NCERT Solutions Class 10 History Chapter 1: The Rise of Nationalism

Write a Brief on

Ques 1: Write a note on the following:
a. Guiseppe Mazzini
b. Count Camillo de Cavour
c. The Greek War of Independence
c. Frankfurt parliament
d. The role of women in nationalist struggles

Ans:

a. Guiseppe Mazzini: In the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini endeavoured to create a comprehensive plan for establishing a unified Italian Republic. Additionally, he established a clandestine organization known as ‘Young Italy’ to promote his objectives.

b. Count Camillo de Cavour:  Count Camillo de Cavour spearheaded the Italian unification movement, despite not being a revolutionary or a proponent of democracy. Cavour achieved a significant victory for Sardinia-Piedmont by orchestrating a skilful diplomatic alliance that led to the defeat of Austrian forces in 1859.

c. The Greek War of Independence: Greece had been under Ottoman Empire rule since the 15th century. The rise of revolutionary nationalism in Europe ignited a fight for Greek independence, commencing in 1821. Poets and artists celebrated Greece as the birthplace of European civilization and rallied public support for its battle against the Muslim empire. Greek nationalists received assistance from fellow Greeks in exile and garnered sympathy from many Western Europeans who admired ancient Greek culture. Ultimately, the Treaty of Constantinople in 1832 officially acknowledged Greece as an independent nation.

d. Frankfurt Parliament: The Frankfurt Parliament was a national assembly that brought together middle-class professionals, businessmen, and prosperous artisans from various German regions. It was established on May 18, 1848, but its support dwindled, leading to its dissolution on May 31, 1849.

e. The role of women in nationalist struggles: Women from the liberal middle classes joined their calls for constitutionalism with the drive for national unification. They seized the opportunity presented by the increasing public discontent to advocate for the establishment of a nation-state based on parliamentary principles, including a constitution, freedom of the press, and freedom of association. These women established their own political organizations, launched newspapers, and actively participated in political gatherings and protests.

Ques 2. What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?

Ans: Here are the different stages of the French Revolution or different steps taken by revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity among the French populace:

  • The concepts of ‘La Patrie’ (the homeland) and ‘Le Citoyen’ (the citizen) underscored the idea of a unified community enjoying equal rights within a constitutional framework.
  • The previous royal standard was replaced by the selection of a new French flag, the tricolour.
  • In the name of the nation, new songs were created, oaths were sworn, and those who sacrificed for the cause were commemorated.
  • A centralised administrative system was established, creating consistent laws for all citizens throughout the nation’s territory. Internal tariffs and levies were eliminated. Also, a standardised system of weights and measures was adopted.
  • Regional languages were discouraged, and French as spoken and written in Paris became the common language of the entire nation.
  • Further, the revolutionaries also proclaimed that it was the French nation’s duty and destiny to free the peoples of Europe from authoritarian rule. This essentially aided other European populations in their quest for nationhood.

Ques 3. Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?

Ans: 

Marianne

  • Artists in the nineteenth century devised female allegorical figures to symbolize the nation, with “Marianne” being a popular choice, as the name carried connotations of a unified people’s nation.
  • Marianne’s attributes were inspired by those of Liberty and the Republic, including the iconic red cap, the tricolour, and the cockade. Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to serve as a constant reminder of this national symbol, encouraging the public to connect with it.
  • Marianne’s image was incorporated into currency and postage stamps, further solidifying her as a national emblem.

Germania

Whereas, Germania emerged as the personification of the German nation. In visual representations, Germania is often depicted wearing a crown made of oak leaves, symbolizing heroism, as the German oak tree embodies this quality.

Ques 4. Briefly trace the process of German unification.

Ans: Here is a track of the process of German unification:

  • Conservatives frequently harnessed nationalist feelings to advance state authority and gain political control across Europe, as evident in the processes that led to the formation of Germany and Italy as nation-states.
  • Attempts by the German middle class to unite the various regions of the German Confederation were thwarted by the actions of influential landowners known as Prussian Junkers. A series of three conflicts with Austria, Denmark, and France, spanning seven years, culminated in a Prussian victory. In January 1871, Prussian King William I was declared the German emperor.
  • Significance was placed on modernizing Germany’s currency, banking, legal, and judicial systems.

Ques 5. What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?

Ans: Napoleon introduced the following changes through The Napolean Code or Civil Code of 1804:

  • The code eliminated privileges tied to one’s birth, established legal equality, and protected property rights.
  • Also, Napoleon extended this code to regions under French control, where he streamlined administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system, and liberated peasants from serfdom and feudal dues in places like the Dutch Republic, Switzerland, Italy, and Germany. 
  • Additionally, Guild restrictions in towns were also lifted. 
  • Besides, improvements were made in transportation and communication networks.

This newfound freedom benefited peasants, artisans, workers, and emerging entrepreneurs. Businesspeople and small-scale manufacturers, in particular, began to recognize that a uniform legal system, standardized measurements, and a national currency would enhance the movement and exchange of goods and capital across different regions.

Discuss

Ques 1. Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?

Ans: 

  • In 1848, alongside the uprisings of impoverished populations, a separate revolution was occurring. Initiated by the educated middle classes, this liberal revolution was experienced by unemployed individuals, impoverished peasants, and labourers in numerous European countries. The events in France in February 1848 led to the monarch’s abdication and the establishment of a republic based on universal male suffrage.
  • In regions of Europe where independent nation-states had not yet formed, such as Germany, Italy, Poland, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, individuals from the liberal middle class combined their calls for constitutionalism with aspirations for national unity. They capitalized on the growing popular unrest to advocate for the creation of a nation-state based on parliamentary principles, which included a constitution, freedom of the press, and freedom of association.
  • The issue of granting political rights to women generated controversy within the liberal movement, even though many women had actively participated in the movement over the years. Women had established their political groups, initiated newspapers, and engaged in political gatherings and protests.

Ques 2. Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.

Ans:

Language:

The role of language was immensely significant. Following the Russian occupation, the Polish language was forcibly removed from schools, and the Russian language was imposed as the primary language. In response, the Polish clergy utilized language as a tool of national resistance. They used Polish for religious gatherings and all religious teachings, turning it into a symbol of their struggle against Russian dominance.

Romanticism:

Romanticism represented a cultural movement aimed at nurturing a distinct form of national sentiment. Artists and poets from the Romantic era typically criticized the exaltation of reason and science, instead emphasizing emotions, intuition, and mystical experiences. Their goal was to depict a shared cultural heritage as the foundation of a nation.

Folk poetry, folk dance, folk songs:

The genuine essence of the nation was popularized through these forms of expression. Thus, the collection and preservation of folk culture, including poetry, dance, and songs, played a vital role in the process of nation-building.

Ques 3. Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.

Ans: 

Germany

  • Nationalist sentiments were often harnessed by conservatives to consolidate state authority and achieve political dominance in Europe, particularly evident in the unification processes of Germany and Italy.
  • Attempts by middle-class Germans to unite the various regions within the German Confederation were thwarted by the actions of the influential Prussian landowners known as the ‘Junkers.’ A series of three wars over seven years against Austria, Denmark, and France resulted in Prussian triumph, ultimately leading to the proclamation of Prussian King William I as the German emperor in January 1871.
  • There was a significant emphasis on modernizing Germany’s currency, banking systems, legal structures, and judicial systems.

Italy

  • In the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini’s efforts to unify Italy were initially carried out through a secret society called ‘Young Italy,’ which ultimately did not succeed. Consequently, the responsibility for unifying the Italian states through military means fell on Sardinia-Piedmont, under the rule of King Victor Emmanuel II.
  • Italian forces, along with numerous volunteers led by Giuseppe Garibaldi, achieved victory over Austrian forces in 1859. In 1860, they marched to southern Italy and successfully overcame Spanish rulers. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed the King of Italy.

Ques 4. How was the history of nationalism in Britain, unlike the rest of Europe?

Ans: Here is how the nationalism of Britain differed from that of the rest of Europe:

  • The emergence of the nation-state didn’t happen abruptly or through rapid revolution; instead, it evolved gradually over time.
  • The primary identities among the inhabitants of the British Isles were rooted in their ethnicity, such as English, Welsh, Scottish, or Irish.
  • The Act of Union between England and Scotland led to the creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain. This change involved the suppression of Scottish culture, including language and traditional attire, often resulting in the displacement of many Scots from their homeland.
  • Ireland was forcibly integrated into the United Kingdom in 1801, with English support for the Protestant community in Ireland, enabling their dominance over the Catholic population.
  • The symbols of the new Britain, like the Union Jack flag, the national anthem “God Save Our Noble King,” and the promotion of the English language, were actively encouraged. The older nations within the union survived only as subordinate partners in this arrangement.

Ans: Here are the reasons behind the emergence of tensions in the Balkans:

  • This area displayed a combination of geographical and ethnic diversity, encompassing present-day countries like Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia, and Montenegro. The inhabitants of the region were generally referred to as Slavs.
  • A significant portion of this region was under the dominion of the Ottoman Empire, but over time, declarations of independence from Ottoman rule began to emerge.
  • The Balkans became an exceedingly volatile region due to the influence of romantic nationalist ideas and the simultaneous disintegration of the Ottoman Empire.

NCERT Solutions Class 10 History Chapter 1 Extra Questions

Here are some of the important questions about the rise of nationalism in Europe:

  1. What is the French Revolution?
  2. How did the idea of the nation-state emerge?
  3. What do you understand by the Napoleonic code?
  4. What led to World War 1?
  5. Explain all the reforms by Napolean.

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FAQs

Write a note on Guiseppe Mazzini.

Guiseppe Mazzini was a famous activist, politician, and journalist for the unification of Italy. He was a major contributor to the independence struggle in various parts of Italy. He was an advocate of republicanism and envisioned a united and independent Italy.

Write a note on Count Camillo de Cavour.

He was the Chief Minister of the Sardinia-Piedmont state movement and was known for his works. He was popular for a diplomatic alliance with France.

Write a note on the Greek War of Independence.

1821 and 1829 against the Ottoman Empire led to a successful independence day by Greek leaders and revolutionaries. France, Russia and Great Britain supported them.

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