In Chapter 8 of CBSE Class 8 Social Science Syllabus of Civics, students can learn about some of the ways in which groups and individuals challenge existing inequalities. One best way to revise the entire Chapter for the exam is to browse through CBSE Notes and NCERT Solutions of Class 8 Civics Chapter 8-Confronting Marginalisation.
Introduction to Confronting Marginalisation
In the first section of Chapter 8 Confronting Marginalisation, the students will be introduced to what and why certain rules are formed in the judicial system to protect the minority groups.
Adivasis, Dalits, Muslims, women, and other marginalized groups claim that they have basic rights that must be respected simply by being residents of a democratic society. All of them turn to the Constitution for answers to their problems. To protect groups from further exploitation, rights are converted into legislation. Laws are developed to facilitate these groups’ access to production.
Invoking Fundamental Rights
- The Act established the principles that support our democracy and polity, as described in and by the list of Fundamental Rights that is an important part of the Constitution—rights that are available to all Indians equally.
- These rights have been used by the marginalized in two ways: 1) By insisting on their Fundamental Rights, they forced the government to recognize the injustice done to them. 2) They also demanded that the government strictly enforce these rules.
- Untouchability has been abolished under Article 17 of the Constitution, which ensures that no one will prohibit Dalits from educating themselves, attending temples, accessing public services, and so on. It is unethical to maintain untouchability, and a democratic government would not allow it. Untouchability is also a punishable offense.
- Other sections of the Constitution support the case against untouchability, such as Article 15 of the Constitution, which states that “no resident of India shall be discriminated against on the basis of religion, color, caste, sex, or place of birth,” which is used by Dalits to demand equality where it has been denied to them.
- Dalits may ‘invoke’ or ‘draw on’ a Fundamental Right (or Rights) when they believe they have been treated unfairly by a person, a society, or even the government.
- Draw the attention of the Indian government to the Constitution and demand that it be implemented and that justice is served to them.
- Other minority groups have mentioned the Fundamental Rights section of our Constitution, claiming the right to religious freedom as well as cultural and educational rights.
- In the case of cultural and educational rights, distinct cultural and religious groups like the Muslims and Parsis have the right to be the guardians of the content of their culture, as well as the right to make decisions on how best this content is to be preserved.
- As a result, by granting various aspects of cultural freedom, the Constitution seeks to guarantee cultural justice for such communities. This is done by the Constitution to ensure that the identity of these communities is not overshadowed or washed out by the culture of the dominant population.
Check Notes On Other Social Science Chapters:
- When People Rebel Class 8
- Tribals, Dikus and the Vision of a Golden Age Class 8 Notes
- From Trade to Territory Class 8 Study Notes
- How When and Where Class 8
- Ruling the Countryside Class 8 Notes
- Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners
- The Making of National Movement Class 8
- Class 8 Resources
- India After Independence Class 8
- Civilising the ‘Native’, Educating the Nation
- Women Class and Reform Class 8
- Colonialism and the City Class 8 Notes
Laws for the Marginalised
The government has made laws in order to protect every citizen of India. Yet, this is not the only way in which it takes action. There are specific laws and policies for the marginalised in our country.
- In an attempt to accomplish the Constitution, state and central governments provide free or discounted hostels for students from Dalit and Adivasi communities, allowing them to take advantage of educational opportunities that might not be accessible in their communities. Laws are often used by the government to ensure that effective measures are taken to eliminate inequity in the economy.
- Students applying to educational schools, as well as those applying for government employment, must have proof in the form of caste and tribe certificates. If an applicant belongs to a Dalit caste or a tribe that is on the government list, he or she is qualified for reservation.
- Governments provide a collection of “cut-off” marks for admission to colleges, especially institutes of professional education. Only Dalit and tribal candidates who scored above the cut-off point are qualified for entry. The government also provides special scholarships to these students.
Protecting the Rights of Dalits and Adivasis
- Our country has strict policies in place to protect marginalized communities from discrimination and exploitation. The Scheduled Castes and Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act was enacted in 1989 to shield Dalits and Adivasis from the dominance and abuse of dominant castes.
- A number of aggressive Dalit groups appeared and claimed their rights, refusing to exercise their so-called caste duties and focusing on fair treatment. Adivasi people successfully organized themselves in the 1970s and 1980s, demanding equal rights and the return of their land wealth. This Act differentiates between various types of violence.
- It lists forms of humiliation that are both physically and deeply immoral. Actions that deny Dalits and Adivasis of their limited wealth or force them to work as slaves. Crimes against Dalit and tribal women are of a specific nature, and the law aims to punish anyone who uses force against these women.
- Manual scavenging is the method of collecting human and animal excrement from dry latrines with brooms, tin plates, and buckets and taking it on one’s head to a dumping site some distance away.
- The Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act was passed by the government in 1993. This law prohibits the employment of manual scavengers as well as the construction of Dry latrines.
Adivasi Demands and the 1989 Act
- The Government passed the Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act that supports Adivasis in defending their right to claim land previously theirs. Adivasis are frequently unwilling to relocate and have been forcefully removed from their land. Activists suggest that those who have forcibly encroached on tribal lands be punished by this law.
- They have also pointed out that this Act only confirms what the Constitution already promises tribal people – that land belonging to tribal people cannot be leased or purchased by non-tribal people.
- In such cases, tribal people have the right to reclaim their property under the Constitution’s provisions. Meanwhile, tribals who have already been evicted and are unable to return to their lands must be compensated. That is, the government must devise strategies and policies to enable them to live and work elsewhere.
Conclusion of Confronting Marginalisation
The existence of a right or a law or even a policy on paper does not mean that it exists in reality. People have had to constantly work on or make efforts to translate these into principles that guide the actions of their fellow citizens or even their leaders. The desire for equality, dignity, and respect is not new.
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NCERT Solutions of Class 8 Confronting Marginalisation
The two fundamental rights that Dalits can draw upon to insist that they be treated with dignity and as equals are:
Right to Equality: All persons are equal before the law. No citizen can be discriminated against on the basis of his or her socioeconomic background, caste, religion, etc. Every person has an equal right to access all public places.
Right to Freedom: This includes the right to freedom of speech and expression, the right to move freely, the right to form associations, the right to reside in any part of the country, and the right to practice any kind of profession, occupation, or business.
Rantham had declined to participate in the sadistic religious practices, so the village’s dominant castes wanted to teach him a lesson. They demanded that the city disown him and his family and that no one should talk or work with or for them. Some men also set fire to his house and attempted to burn him and his family alive. Rantham used the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Prevention of Atrocities Act, 1989, to oppose such violent and inhuman activities against Dalits. This Act promises that Dalits and Adivasis would not be forcefully evicted from their land and capital. It also prohibits humiliation and ill-treatment of Dalit communities.
Adivasi advocates, including C.K. Janu, claim that Adivasis should use the 1989 Act to fight against dispossession because the Act assures tribals that they will not be physically removed from their land and properties. Furthermore, this Act confirms that any tribal people’s property cannot be leased or purchased by non-tribal people. If this happens, the Constitution guarantees the right of the tribal people to repossess their land.
(a) Bring to class a poem that discusses a social issue. Share this with your classmates. Work in small groups with two or more poems to discuss their meaning as well as what the poet is trying to communicate.
(b) Identify a marginalised community in your locality. Write a poem, or song, or draw a poster, etc to express your feelings as a member of this community
Students are advised to attempt this question on their own.
We hope the notes and NCERT solutions provided on “Confronting Marginalisation’’ were helpful to you. You can read notes for the other chapters of Class 8th in subjects like English, Maths, Science on blogs by Leverage Edu. Hope they help you get good marks in your exams.