CBSE Class 9 History Notes Chapter 2 Notes “Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution” (Free PDF)

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NCERT Class 9 History Notes Chapter 2 Notes “Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution”

Welcome to the chapter CBSE Class 9 History Chapter 2 Notes “Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution.”

The chapter explores the rise of socialism and its impact on society, particularly through the Russian Revolution. It shows how socialist ideas challenged traditional structures, leading to significant political and economic changes. The Russian Revolution transformed Russia into a socialist state, affecting global politics.

The changes that were led by the revolution included the nationalization of industries, land redistribution, and the establishment of a one-party government. It led to improved education, healthcare, and women’s rights, but also caused economic difficulties and political repression.

Overall, the chapter ¨Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution¨highlights socialism’s influence on shaping modern societies and global dynamics.

Download NCERT Class 9 CBSE Class 9 History Notes Chapter 2 Notes ¨Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution (Free PDF)
Download NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Chapter 2 History “Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution” Class 9 (Free PDF)
Chapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5

The Age of Social Change

After the revolution, discussions on individual rights and social power emerged worldwide, influencing societal change in Europe and Asia. Socialism gained prominence in the 20th century, especially after the Russian Revolution.

1. Discussions on individual rights and social power increased post-revolution.
2. Colonial development influenced societal change, but not everyone supported complete transformation.
3. The Russian Revolution propelled socialism as a significant societal force in the 20th century.

Also Read: NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 1 ‘Tracing Changes Through a Thousand Years’: Notes and Solutions (Free PDF)

Liberals, Radicals and Conservatives

Liberals advocate for religious tolerance, elected government, and judiciary independence, championing Enlightenment principles like reason and equality. 

Conservatives support gradual change, respecting historical traditions, and valuing stability. Both ideologies shape political discourse, influencing policies and societal development worldwide.

– Liberals: Advocated for religious tolerance, elected government, and judiciary independence.

– Conservatives: Supported gradual change while respecting historical traditions.

Industrial Society and Social Change

Industrial Society and Social Change

The Industrial Revolution sparked the emergence of new cities and industrial regions, transforming society. Harsh working conditions prevailed, with long hours, low wages, and unemployment during downturns. 

Reforms, advocated by liberals and radicals, aimed at securing individual freedom and advancing social development, shaping modern labour laws and social policies.

Industrial Revolution: Emergence of new cities and industrial regions.

Harsh working conditions: Long hours, low wages, and unemployment during low demand.

Reforms: Advocated by liberals and radicals for individual freedom and social development.

Also Read: NCERT Class 7 History Chapter 1 ‘Tracing Changes Through a Thousand Years’: Notes and Solutions (Free PDF)

The Coming of Socialism to Europe

Socialism opposed private property and sought fundamental societal change. 

Key figures included Robert Owen, who advocated for cooperative communities, Louis Blanc, who proposed government-supported cooperatives, and Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, who critiqued capitalism and envisioned a classless society. 

Their ideas shaped socialist movements worldwide.

Socialism: Opposed private property, and sought societal change.

Key figures: Robert Owen (cooperative communities), Louis Blanc (government-supported cooperatives), Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (critique of capitalism).

Support for Socialism

The spread of socialism led to the formation of the Second International, uniting socialist and labour parties worldwide. Workers’ associations emerged, advocating for improved living and working conditions through collective action. 

By 1905, political parties like the Labour Party and Socialist Party were established, representing socialist ideals and influencing governmental policies.

– Spread of socialism: Formation of the Second International.

Workers’ associations: Fought for better living and working conditions.

Political parties: The Labour Party and Socialist Party were formed in 1905.

The Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution

In the October Revolution, socialists seized power in Russia, overthrowing the monarchy and establishing a Bolshevik-led government. The fall of the monarchy occurred earlier in February 1917, marking the end of Tsarist rule and paving the way for revolutionary change in Russia.

October Revolution: Socialists seized power in Russia.

Fall of monarchy: February 1917 marked the end of Tsarist rule.

The Russian Empire in 1914

Tsar Nicholas II ruled the vast Russian Empire, encompassing diverse regions from Europe to the Pacific. As Russia’s last monarch, his reign was marked by political turmoil, social unrest, and ultimately, the downfall of the Romanov dynasty during the Russian Revolution of 1917.

Tsar Nicholas II: Ruled the Russian Empire.

Empire: Included diverse regions from Europe to the Pacific.

Also Read: NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 1 “What, Where, How and When?”: Notes and Solutions (Free PDF)

Economy and Society

Early 20th-century Russia was predominantly agricultural, with significant industrial areas in St Petersburg and Moscow. The government regulated factories to ensure minimum wages and limited working hours.

– Predominantly agricultural society: Peasants cultivated land for market and personal use.

Industrial areas: St Petersburg and Moscow.

– Government regulation: Ensured minimum wages and limited working hours.

Socialism in Russia

Before 1914, socialists in Russia formed political parties, advocating for peasants’ rights and land redistribution. Key figures included Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks.

Political parties: Russian Social Democratic Workers Party and Socialist Revolutionary Party.

Key figures: Vladimir Lenin emphasized a disciplined party for revolution.

A Turbulent Time: The 1905 Revolution

The 1905 Revolution saw widespread unrest as workers, peasants, and political groups demanded reforms. The Tsar allowed the creation of an elected consultative Parliament (Duma).

1905 Revolution: Unrest led to demands for a constitution and reforms.

Tsar’s response: Creation of the Duma.

The First World War and the Revolution EmpireThe First World War and the Revolution Empire

The First World War inflicted military defeats and economic hardships, fueling social unrest. This discontent culminated in the February Revolution of 1917, toppling the Tsarist regime and setting the stage for further revolutionary upheaval in Russia.

First World War: Military defeats and economic hardships.

Social unrest: Led to the February Revolution of 1917.

The February Revolution in Petrograd

The February Revolution led to the establishment of a Provisional Government, replacing the Tsarist regime. 

Soviets, representing workers and soldiers, emerged as powerful bodies demanding reforms and wielding significant influence alongside the Provisional Government during this tumultuous period in Russian history.

February Revolution: Led to the establishment of a Provisional Government.

Soviets: Workers and soldiers demanded reforms.

After February

Under the Provisional Government, efforts were made towards an elected government. Bolshevik leader Lenin returned, calling for an end to war, land redistribution, and nationalization of banks.

Provisional Government: Worked towards an elected government.

Lenin’s return: Demanded end to war, land redistribution, and nationalization of banks.

The Revolution of October 1917

Lenin and the Bolsheviks organized a socialist seizure of power in October 1917, leading to the establishment of Bolshevik control over Russia.

October Revolution: Bolsheviks seized power.

Establishment of control: Bolsheviks took over government offices and arrested ministers.

What Changed after October?

Nationalization involved the government taking control of industry and banks, centralizing economic power. Land redistribution saw peasants seizing noble lands, redistributing wealth and land ownership. 

The Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, established a one-party state, transforming into the Communist Party, consolidating political control, and shaping the future of Soviet Russia.

Nationalisation: Industry and banks are taken over by the government.

Land redistribution: Peasants seized noble lands.

One-party state: The Bolshevik Party became the Communist Party.

The Civil War

The Russian Civil War saw the Bolsheviks (‘Reds’) fight against the ‘Whites’ (pro-Tsarists) and other factions. By 1920, the Bolsheviks controlled most of the former Russian Empire.

Civil War: Bolsheviks (‘Reds’) vs. ‘Whites’ and other factions.

Bolshevik control: By 1920, most of the former Russian Empire was under Bolshevik control.

Making a Socialist Society

During the civil war, industries and banks remained nationalized, and a centralised planning process was introduced, leading to economic growth and social reforms.

Centralized planning: Set economic targets and promoted industrial growth.

Social reforms: Education, healthcare, and women’s rights improved.

Stalinism and Collectivisation

Stalin introduced collectivization in agriculture, leading to forced consolidation of farms and severe famine. Despite initial failures, the Soviet Union continued to pursue centralized planning.

Collectivization: Forced consolidation of farms under state control.

Famine: Severe food shortages and loss of livestock.

Continued planning: Soviet Union persisted with centralized economic planning.

The Global Influence of the Russian Revolution and the USSR

The Global Influence of the Russian Revolution and the USSR

The USSR’s emergence as a major global power and symbol of socialism inspired communist movements and parties worldwide. Its influence extended far beyond its borders, shaping international relations and ideologies, and fueling revolutions and resistance movements in various parts of the world.

Global influence: Inspired communist movements and parties worldwide.

USSR’s role: Became a major global power and symbol of socialism.

Also Read: NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 2 From Hunting-Gathering to Growing Food: Notes and Solutions (Free PDF)

10 Important Dates and Events of CBSE Class 9 History Notes Chapter 2 Notes ¨Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Notes

Let us delve into the important days and events of the chapter ¨Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution¨ from the following breakdown:


1. 1771-1858: Robert Owen’s Cooperative Community
Robert Owen attempted to create a cooperative community, New Harmony, in Indiana, promoting socialist ideas.

2. 1813-1882: Louis Blanc’s Cooperatives
Louis Blanc advocated for government-supported cooperatives to replace capitalist enterprises.

3. 1848: Publication of the Communist Manifesto
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels published the Communist Manifesto, laying the foundation for modern socialism.

4. 1898: Formation of the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party
Socialists founded this party in Russia, aligning with Marx’s ideas and advocating for workers’ rights.

5. 1900: Establishment of the Socialist Revolutionary Party
Russian socialists formed this party to champion peasants’ rights and demand land redistribution.

6. 1905: The 1905 Revolution
Widespread unrest in Russia led to the Tsar creating an elected consultative Parliament (Duma).

7. 1914: Outbreak of the First World War
The war exacerbated Russia’s economic and social issues, setting the stage for revolution.

8. February 1917: The February Revolution
This revolution in Petrograd resulted in the fall of the monarchy and the establishment of a Provisional Government.

9. October 1917: The October Revolution
Lenin and the Bolsheviks seized power in Russia, leading to the establishment of a socialist state.

10. 1922: Formation of the Soviet Union
The Bolsheviks established the USSR, centralizing power and implementing socialist policies across the former Russian Empire.

Also Read: NCERT Class 6 History Chapter 3 In the Earliest Cities: Notes and Solutions (Free PDF)

FAQs

Q.1. What are the important dates of socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution?

Ans: Important Dates of Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution:
1830s-1840s – Early socialist ideas emerge in Europe, with thinkers like Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels beginning to advocate for socialism.
1898 – Formation of the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party.
1900 – Formation of the Socialist Revolutionary Party in Russia.
1905 – The Revolution of 1905 in Russia, leading to the creation of the Duma.
1914 – Start of the First World War.
February 1917 – The February Revolution, leading to the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the establishment of the Provisional Government.
April 1917 – Lenin returns to Russia and presents his April Theses.
October 1917 – The October Revolution, where the Bolsheviks seize power.
March 1918 – Treaty of Brest-Litovsk is signed, ending Russia’s involvement in World War I.
1922 – Formation of the Soviet Union (USSR).
1929 – Start of collectivization under Stalin.

Q.2: Write a note on Socialism in Europe for Class 9 short notes.

Ans: Here is a short notes on Socialism in Europe:
Early Socialism:
Socialism began in Europe as a reaction to the inequalities brought by industrialization. Early socialists like Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels criticized capitalism and proposed a classless society where the means of production were communally owned.
Key Ideas:
Socialists believed in economic equality and the welfare of all workers and peasants. They opposed private property and viewed it as the root of social injustices.
Socialist Movements:
By the mid-nineteenth century, socialist ideas had spread widely, leading to the formation of socialist parties and movements across Europe

Q.3: What is the Russian Revolution for Class 9? 

Ans: Learn about the Russian Revolution from the point mentioned below:
Background:
The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the Russian Empire, leading to the overthrow of the Tsarist autocracy and the rise of the Soviet Union.
February Revolution (1917):
This revolution began with strikes and protests in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg) due to food shortages, military defeats in World War I, and economic hardships. It led to the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the establishment of a Provisional Government.
October Revolution (1917):
Led by the Bolshevik Party under Vladimir Lenin, this revolution saw the overthrow of the Provisional Government. The Bolsheviks seized control of Petrograd, marking the beginning of Soviet rule.
Key Outcomes:
The Russian Revolution resulted in the establishment of a socialist government, nationalization of industry and land, withdrawal from World War I, and significant political and social changes leading to the formation of the USSR in 1922.

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