Kothari Education Commission UPSC Notes for Students 

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The Kothari Education Commission, also known as the Education Commission, was appointed by the Government of India. It was responsible for redefining India’s educational framework by recognizing the challenges, formulating new policies, implementing effective changes, and adapting to the specific needs of post-independence India. In this blog, we will explore important questions such as why the Kothari Commission was appointed, its key recommendations, the Kothari Commission Report, and more. Let’s begin. 

Name of the commission Kothari Education Commission
Formed onJuly 14, 1964
Total members 17
Chairman Dr Daulat Singh Kothari

What is the Kothari Commission? 

Before moving ahead, let us first take a look at what is the Kothari Commission: 

  • The Kothari Commission was set up by the Government of India on 14 July 1964.
  • It was established under the leadership of Daulat Singh Kothari. 
  • Additionally, he was also the chairman of the University Grants Commission (UGC)
  • The Commission consisted of 17 members. 
  • The primary aim of the Kothari Commission was to formulate new policies that would ultimately lead to the overall development of India’s educational sector. 
  • For this, the Commission gave numerous recommendations to standardize the education pattern in India. 
  • Although it was the sixth commission created post-independence in India, it is considered the first commission established to deal specifically with the education sector. 
  • The Commission was operated for two years from 1964 to 1966 and submitted its report on 29 June 1966. This was when it was officially dissolved. 

Also Read: Nehru Report 1928: UPSC Notes for Students

Why was the Kothari Commission Formed?

The Kothari Commission was formed to address the extensive number of challenges regarding education in India. It was appointed to address concerns such as:

  • Low literacy rate
  • Unequal or inaccessible education
  • Poor quality of education
  • Poor quality of teaching in educational institutions
  • Lack of policies regarding education
  • Outdated curriculum and education system
  • Inadequate significance of the education system
Source: RS Creation Study

Recommendations of the Kothari Commission

The Kothari Commission gave 23 recommendations to improve the whole education system in India. They were related to areas such as:

  1. Aims of the education
  2. Methods of teaching
  3. Education of women 
  4. Textbook
  5. Curriculum
  6. Three language formula
  7. Distance education
  8. Vocational education
  9. Educational structure and standards
  10. Welfare of students
  11. Selective admission
  12. Guidance and counselling
  13. Supervision and inspection of institutions 
  14. Moral and religious education
  15. Teacher Education
  16. Adult education
  17. Work experience
  18. Establishment of universities
  19. University autonomy
  20. Higher education enrollment
  21. Administrative reforms 
  22. Addressing defects in the entire education system 
  23. Evaluation 

Important Recommendations of the Kothari Commission 

Here are a few essential recommendations of the Kothari Commission:

Aspect Recommendations 
Free and compulsory education It emphasized the education of girls. Focused on backward classes, tribal people, and PWD sections to promote social justice. 
Languages The Commission focused on improving postgraduate-level research and training. It provided provisions for laboratories, quality education, and libraries.
University-level reformsIt recommended the adoption of a three-language formula at the state level. Promotion of Hindi, English, and regional language in non-Hindi speaking states. It also fostered the promotion of English. 
Focus on Social JusticeIt emphasized education of girls. Focused on backward classes, tribal people, and PWD sections to promote social justice. 

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Impact of the Kothari Education Commission Recommendations

  • India’s education system was aligned with a 10+2+3 pattern.
  • The Kothari Education Commission recommended the National Policy on Education. The Bill was passed under the leadership of India’s former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.
  • India’s educational system was divided into national bodies, state bodies, and Central Board.  
  • Education became easily accessible and free, especially for girls and disadvantaged groups of the country. 
  • India witnessed an increase in adult literacy programs, and the establishment of new research institutions, universities, and opportunities. 
  • The promotion of regional languages as the primary medium of instruction in schools helped students from diverse backgrounds learn together. 
  • Science and research fields were prioritized. 

Kothari Commission Task Forces 

Upon its establishment, the Kothari Commission set up twelve task forces on:

  1. School Education
  2. Higher Education 
  3. Adult Education
  4. Student Welfare 
  5. Agricultural Education
  6. Science Education and Research
  7. Technical Education
  8. Teacher Training and Teacher Status
  9. New Techniques and Methods
  10. Manpower
  11. Educational Finance
  12. Educational Administration 

Apart from this, the Commission also constituted seven Working Groups to monitor and enhance specific educational issues. 

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Kothari Commission Report

As mentioned earlier, the Kothari Commission Report was submitted on 29 June 1996. It was divided into four parts, dealing with various requirements of the country in the field of education. 

First Part

  • The first part of the Kothari Commission report deals with the general educational aspects that apply to all levels and types of education. 
  • For instance, it emphasized realigning the educational system with the national goals of the company, improving the structure of the educational system, improving the quality of hired teachers, forming new enrollment policies, and so on. 

Second Part 

  • The second part of the report talks about the different aspects of school education as well as problems associated with higher education. 
  • It covers topics such as making education accessible to all, content in the curriculum and how to deliver it properly, how to help students succeed, and so on.
  • Apart from this, it also emphasized the importance of technical, science, and research education. 

Third Part

  • The third part of the Kothari Education Commission dealt with different aspects of education.
  • For this, it included educational planning, administration reforms, and finance. 

Fourth Part 

  • The fourth part limited itself to dealing with the paperwork. 

Limitations of the Commission

Although the establishment of the Kothari Commission saw a massive victory and a plethora of positive results, there were numerous limitations such as:

  • It did not address the regional and cultural diversity of India. 
  • There were numerous challenges associated with the implementation of the proposed policies and reforms. 
  • There was an evident lack of explanation regarding how to achieve the specified goals. 
  • A few recommendations by the Kothari Education Commission required heavy financial investment.

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What was the recommendation of the Kothari Commission 1964 66 on school education?

The Kothari Education Commission was established with an objective to improve India’s education system. For this, the Commission provided numerous recommendations such as free and compulsory education to children, adoption of a three-language formula, improvement in teaching methods, and so on. 

In which year the Education Commission or Kothari Commission was formed?

The Kothari Commission was established in November 1964.

Why the Kothari Commission is called the Gita of Education?

The Kothari Commission is famously recognized as the Gita of education. This is because it provided a foundation to develop the National Education Policy of 1968. In addition to this, it aided the Government of India to improve its schooling system, strengthen the pillars, and focus on priority areas.

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