What is the 9th Schedule of the Indian Constitution? 

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What is the 9th Schedule of the Indian Constitution

The 9th Schedule of the Indian Constitution related to Article 31B consists of 284 Central and State Acts, Regulations and Provisions that cannot be deemed void or be scrutinised via Judicial Review. Moreover, these Acts and Regulations will remain in force, unless repealed or amended by a competent legislature. Additionally, the 9th Schedule was added by the 1st Amendment in 1951 to the Indian Constitution and initially had 13 laws. 

Important Acts in the 9th Schedule of the Indian Constitution

Out of the total 284, there are some important and noteworthy Acts present in the 9th Schedule, such as:

  • The Zamindari Abolition Acts of various States: These Acts abolished the Zamindari system. It was a British authoritarian land tenure system during colonial India.
  • The Minimum Wages Act, 1948: Additionally, this Act defines minimum wages for certain categories of employees.
  • The Untouchability Offences Act, 1955: The Act prohibits untouchability and specifies punishment for its practice.
  • The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Act, 1961: Moreover, this Act fixes a ceiling on the amount of land that a person can hold in Tamil Nadu, India.
  • The Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976: The Act prohibits bonded labour, a system where a person is forced to work to repay a debt.
  • The Land Acquisition (Amendment) Act, 1976: This Act amends the Land Acquisition Act of 1894, which helps the acquisition of land by the Government for public purposes.

Did you know? In November 2023, the Bihar government sought the addition of caste-based laws to the 9th Schedule. 

The Addition of the 9th Schedule

The 9th Schedule of the Indian Constitution initially included 13 laws added during Jawaharlal Nehru’s tenure. Moreover, the 1st Amendment in 1951 added the 9th Schedule to the Indian Constitution. After many amendments, there are now a total of 284 Laws that are in the 9th Schedule. 

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