Essay on Population Explosion for Students in English

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Essay On Population Explosion

On this page, we will discuss an essay on population explosion. Population refers to the number of people living in a particular area. For example, if 20 million people are living in Delhi, it means the population of Delhi is 20 million. However, population explosion refers to the sudden increase in population. Population explosion causes a burden on Earth’s natural resources, as the planet can only sustain a limited population. 

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Long Essay on Population Explosion

‘Population explosion refers to the sudden and drastic increase in population. Population explosion is associated with the time of rapid population growth, generally caused by factors such as high birth rates, reduced mortality rates, improved healthcare, and advancements in technology. In India, the period from 1951 to 1981 is referred to as the period of population explosion. During this period, the annual growth rate was 2.2 percent.

Causes of Population Explosion

Several factors are responsible for the population explosion in a country. 

High Birth Rate

The high birth rate is one of the major causes of the population explosion. From 1951 to 1981, India’s population increased from 31 crore to 71 crore. This was mainly because of higher birth rates in both rural and urban areas. When the birth rate is higher than the death rate, there is an increase in population.

Reduced Mortality Rates

India’s current mortality rate is 9.45 deaths per 1000 inhabitants. With the advances in healthcare, sanitation, and medical technology, there is a decrease in mortality rates. It means the number of deaths per 1000 population is reduced and more people survive to reproductive age, leading to population growth.

High Level of Illiteracy

India’s current literacy rate is 77.7%. However, from 1951 to 1981, when there was a sudden increase in population, the literacy rate was only 18.33%. It was the low literacy rate during this period that resulted in a population explosion in India.

Religious and Social Factors

In several places, religious and social factors are responsible for population explosion. Some communities and religion’s beliefs promote large family size and contraception, impacting birth rates.

Early Marriage

The rapid increase in population is often associated with early marriage. In India, the legal marriage age for men is 21 and for women is 18. Early marriage results in a longer span of reproductive activity. In developed countries, the legal marriage age is generally 21 years or above. 


When people migrate to different cities or countries, it impacts population growth. For example, immigration to urban areas can contribute to population explosion in those regions.

Gender Inequality

Societies with gender inequality experience higher birth rates, as women have limited control over family planning decisions. Societies with restricted women’s rights lack control over their bodies and decisions about childbirth. This can lead to unwanted pregnancies and higher fertility rates.

Also Read: Essay on Peer Pressure for Students

Impact of Population Explosion

Nature is the first victim of population explosion. As the global population increases, the demand for resources increases. From depletion of natural resources to economic crises, population explosion affects society as a whole.

Depletion of Natural Resources

With the increased human population, the demand for natural resources such as water, land, forests, and minerals increases. Overexploitation of these resources will eventually deplete natural ecosystems and disrupt ecological balance.


Humans need land to build houses. With increasing population, the need for land increases and there is only limited land available on Earth. This will result in deforestation as forests will be cleared for human settlement, agriculture, and infrastructure development. This will result in habitat loss for many plant and animal species.

Increased Unemployment and Poverty

An increase in population means a large number of workforce. However, there are not sufficient employment opportunities to sustain everyone. This will result in increased unemployment and poverty.

Increased Air and Water Pollution

Air and water pollution are the results of human activities. Increased population density is associated with increased industrialization and urbanization. This will result in increased air and water pollution. The release of toxic substances in water and air pollutes these life-saving resources. 

Waste Generation

The increase in population leads to increased waste generation. Inadequate waste management can result in pollution of land, water bodies, and the atmosphere, posing threats to both human and environmental health.

Also Read: Green Revolution Essay in 100, 200 and 500 Words in English

Strategies and Policies to Address Population Explosion

Implementing realistic strategies and policies that promote sustainable population growth, improve reproductive health, and ensure the well-being of individuals and communities can surely help with population explosion. 

Promotion of Family Planning Programmes

Easy access to family planning services like contraceptives and reproductive health education can be of great help to deal with population explosion. People must understand the importance of family planning and make civilised decisions.

Education and Women Empowerment

Investing in education and the empowerment of women can help build a just society. Women must become aware of the population explosion and its consequences. The promotion of gender equality will ensure that women have equal opportunities in education, employment, and decision-making.

Enhanced Healthcare Facilities

A strong healthcare system provides essential maternal and child health services, including antenatal care, safe childbirth, and postnatal care. However, people must have easy access to healthcare services to address issues related to maternal mortality and morbidity.

Public Awareness Campaigns

Public awareness campaigns can help with family planning and making informed decisions about having children. Media platforms and the internet can help raise awareness about reproductive health and family planning.

Global Cooperation

Overpopulation or population explosion is not a regional issue. Eventually, it will affect the world as a whole. Therefore, global cooperation is essential to address the population explosion. Moreover, it can create a platform where people from different backgrounds can put creative and innovative ideas to address the population explosion.

Source: Al Jazeera English

10 Lines Essay on Population Explosion

Here is a 10-line essay on population explosion.

  1. Population explosion is the sudden increase in the population of a region or a county.
  2. In India, the period from 1951 to 1981 is known as the period of population explosion.
  3. Its causes are high birth rates, reduced mortality rates, and improved healthcare.
  4. Rapid population growth places immense pressure on natural resources, leading to environmental degradation.
  5. Family planning programs play a crucial role in addressing population explosion by promoting responsible reproduction.
  6. Education and empowerment, particularly for women, contribute to informed family planning decisions.
  7. Economic development and poverty reduction are linked to lower fertility rates.
  8. Population explosion can result in resource depletion, deforestation, and loss of biodiversity.
  9. Public awareness campaigns are essential to destigmatize family planning and promote its acceptance.
  10. Sustainable development requires a balanced approach to address both human needs and environmental conservation.


Q.1. What is a short essay on population explosion?

Ans: ‘Population explosion refers to the sudden and drastic increase in population. Population explosion is associated with the time of rapid population growth, generally caused by factors such as high birth rates, reduced mortality rates, improved healthcare, and advancements in technology. In India, the period from 1951 to 1981 is referred to as the period of population explosion. During this period, the annual growth rate was 2.2 percent.

Q.2. What does population explosion mean?

Ans: Population explosion means the sudden and drastic increase in he human population of a city, region, or country.

Q.3. Which period is associated with the population explosion in India?

Ans: The decades from 1951 to 1981 are known as the people of population explosion in India.

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