Third Anglo-Maratha War: End of the Maratha Confederacy

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third Anglo-Maratha war

The third Anglo-Maratha war began on 5 November 1817 and ended in the year of February 1818. It is the last war between the British East India Company and the Maratha Confederacy. It ended with the victory of Britisher who won a major part of India. As a matter of fact, the Britishers were outnumbered by the erstwhile Marathas but still managed to win their war. The war was followed by many other fights by the Peshwa’s armies which led to his getting captured and placed in a small place near Bihar. 

Role, Leaders and Action

Refer to the below table to know the important players of the war and what they did throughout the war. 

Key PlayersRoleActions
British East India CompanyInvading force from the British sideTroops led by Governor General Hastings
Supported by General Thomas Hislop
Maratha LeadersRoleActions
PindarisBand of Muslim mercenaries and Marathas from central IndiaOperations initiated against the Pindaris
Peshwa Baji Rao IILeader of Maratha forcesForces rose against the East India Company
Mudhoji II Bhonsle of NagpurMaratha leader from NagpurSupported Peshwa Baji Rao II
Malharrao Holkar III of IndoreMaratha leader from IndoreSupported Peshwa Baji Rao II
Daulatrao Shinde of GwaliorMaratha leader from GwaliorInitially neutral, pressured to remain
Lost control of Rajasthan

Why did Maratha lose the third Anglo-Maratha war?

The reason why the Marathas lost the war was the division inside the Maratha confederacy. 

  • They failed to understand the British tactic to rule the nation. 
  • Moreover, not maintaining good relations with other princes and dynasties was yet another reason to lose this war. 
  • Maratha chiefs did not maintain good relations with each other which led to the divide-and-rule ideology of the British East India Company to make their way into the decan parts of India.

Also Read – The Treaty of Purandar Between Maratha and British

Result of the Third Anglo-Maratha War

After the war, to maintain peace, several treaties were signed by different leaders of the Maratha Confederacy. 

  1. Treaty of Poona- In June 1817, the Peshwa of Maratha and the British East India Company signed this which gave Britishers control of the Northern area of Narmada river, and the Southern area of the Tungabhadra river.
  1. Treaty of Gwalior- In 1817, it was signed between the East India Company and Shinde wherein Britishers took control of Rajasthan. However, the Rajputana Rajas of the princely states remained in their positions. 
  1. Treaty of Mandsaur– The Holkar dynasty was one of the signees of this treaty, the other one was, of course, the British East India Company, after losing the battle of Mahidpur. As per this treaty, Holkars lost the final chunk of the Maratha confederacy and was asked to incorporate the British Raj. 
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HumayunWho Defeated the Maratha Empire?
Battle of PanipatWho Was The Founder Of Maratha Empire?
Alauddin Khilji History of Indian Art

This was all about the third Anglo-Maratha war. If you want to read more articles like this, you can get Short notes on the Modern History of India here. Also, you can visit our general knowledge page on Indian History!

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