The Treaty of Purandar Between Maratha and British: History Notes, Facts

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The treaty of Purandar was a doctrine signed by the Peshwa or chief minister of the Maratha people and the leading government of the British East India Company in Calcutta (Now Kolkata). The Mughals took over or besieged the post of Puranadar which is why Chhatrapati Shivaji had to forcefully sign this treaty. The leader of the Mughal Empire Jai Singh 1 and the army of the Maratha Empire led by Chhatrapati Shivaji were the main reasons this treaty took place in the first place. Scroll through to know the whole history of Purandar and what are the events that led to the treaty of Purandar. 

Treaty of  Purandar 
Date March 1, 1776
Participants Great Britain and the Maratha Confederacy
Place Calcutta
Signed byBritish East India Company and Chhatrapati Shivaji
Source- this 

Why was Purandar Fort Important?

It is one of the saddest events that took place in the Maratha empire under the leadership of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. The main goal of the battle was that the Mughals wanted to capture the fort of Purandhar which was also the birthplace of Chhatrapati Shivaji. It was of strategic importance to the Marthas because it fortified the Maratha empire from the southwestern end, and the nearby areas included Pune. 

Background of the Treaty of Purandar

If Chhatrapati Shivaji had taken accession of the Maratha Hindu throne in the Deccan part, it would have led to a great part of India coming under his reign. This fact was very well known to Aurangzeb, the leader of the Mughal Empire. 

  • 1663- Shivaji was the mastermind behind the military invasion against Shaista Khan at Lal Mahal. Shaista Khan’s nephew Aurangzeb named Shivaji ‘Dakkhan ke Subedar’ meaning ‘The governor of the central India.’
  • 1664- He continued to raid the capital of the Shaista Khan, Surat which came to be known as the ‘Battle of Surat.’
  • 1665- Aurangzeb wanted to put an end to the rule of Shivai which is why he planned an attack on the Hindavi Swarajya done by an experienced professional Mirza Raja Jai Singh, king of Amer. An army of 44000 personnel was released and they won the fort of Purandar which reduced the army of Chattrapati Shivaji. This was when the treaty came into existence. 

Chattarpati Shivaji had no choice other than to give up in the war when he saw that there was no chance of them winning. He knew that many lives had been lost and that the only way to not let Marathas work under them was to sacrifice and sign the treaty. 

The treaty of Puranadar was signed by the erstwhile Governor-General of the East India Company, Warren Hastings. They asked their men, Colonel Upton, and Nana Phadnavis, to reach the Peshwa Empire on their behalf for this treaty. Sawai Madhav Rao became the new Peshwa of the Marathas after the signing of this treaty. 

Salient Features of the Treaty of Purandar

The treaty of Purandar came with some really important points to remember that are as follows:-

  • Shivaji was allowed to keep 12 forts along with an area that would give a return of 1,000,000 huns. The Hunnic coinage was a system used from the late fourth to the early eighth century in imitation of Kushan or Sasanian money. 
  • He was supposed to be present with the help of the Mughals as and when needed. 
  • Chattrapati Shivaji’s son Sambhaji was offered a force of 5,000 soldiers who were under the Mughals only. 
  • One of the wishes of Chattarpati was to keep Konkan, a coastal area that was under the control of Bijapur. Therefore he had to pay a sum of Rs. 40 million to the Mughals. 
  • Shivaji had to sacrifice all his forts like Purandar, Rudramal, Karnala, Ankola, Sonagarh, etc.  
Source- Bijoor. me

Impacts after the Treaty of Purandar

The region of Surat was ultimately lost to the Mughals. This led to the annulation of the state. Raghunath Rao, the 11th Peshwa of the Maratha empire, under the treaty, was given a pension but was boycotted from entering the British Empire. 

Moreover, the taxes or revenue that was prevalent back then were increased and taken by the British government like the Salsette (An Act to abolish exemption from land revenue enjoyed by holders of certain estates) and BroachRevenues. 

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What was the revenue of the British?

Land revenue out of the kinds of revenue remained on the top of earnings or sources of income for the Britishers. 

What is the zamindari system in British India?

The Zamindari System was a land tenure system prevalent in India during the British colonial period.

What were the revenue policies introduced by the British?

Three major systems of land revenue collection existed in India. They were – Zamindari, Ryotwari, and Mahalwari. 

Who defeated Shivaji before the Treaty of Purandar?

Jai Singh the commander of the Mughal Army defeated Shivaji Maharaj. 

What is the Treaty of Purandar and Salbai?

The Treaty of Purandhar annulled that of Surat, Raghunathrao was pensioned and his cause abandoned, but the revenues of the Salsette and Broach districts were retained by the British. 

This blog was all about the Treaty of Purandar. If you want to read more articles like this, you can get Short notes on the Modern History of India here. Also, you can visit our general knowledge page on Indian History!

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