The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 CBSE Notes Chapter 1

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The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 CBSE Notes Chapter 1

Welcome to ¨The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 CBSE Notes Chapter 1. The chapter explores the violent scenery of nineteenth-century Europe, the seeds of nationalism were sown that led to monumental shifts in political, social, and cultural spheres. 

From the unification movements in Italy and Germany to the rise of powerful nation-states like Britain, the era was marked by revolutions, economic disruption, and the quest for identity. 

Artists depicted abstract ideals through symbolic representations, while tensions fermented in regions like the Balkan. As nationalism collided with imperialism, the stage was set for the calamitous events of the twentieth century. 

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In 1948, the French artist Frédéric Sorrieu envisioned a world transformed by democratic ideals, capturing his dreams in a series of four prints.

The first print portrays a procession of people from Europe and America honouring the Statue of Liberty, held by a figure symbolising enlightenment and human rights.

The shattered symbols of absolutist institutions lie below, representing the overthrow of oppressive systems. Sorrieu imagines a world where nations, distinguished by flaga and attire, come together in unity.

The procession was led by the United States and Switzerland, followed by France, Germany, and others, marching towards a shared future of peace and cooperation. The divine figures symbolised the fraternity’s imagination among nations, observing the scene with hope and solidarity.

The French Revolution and the Idea of the Nation

The French Revolution of 1789 marked the dawn of nationalism, as political disruption transferred sovereignty from the monarchy to French citizens. 

New concepts like ¨la patrie¨ (the fatherland) and ¨le citoyen¨ (the citizen) emerged, accompanied by the adoption of the tricolour flag as a symbol of the nation´s unity.

Although Napolean´s reign briefly halted demographic progress, the Napoleonic Code of 1804 abolished birth-based privileges, established legal equality, and safeguarded property rights.

All these factors were the solidifying ideals of the revolution. 

The Making of Nationalism in Europe

In the past, Germany, Italy, and Switzerland were divided into various kingdoms, duchies, and cantons, each ruled by its own autonomous leader.

During this time, the aristocracy held significant political and social power, across Europe, while the majority of people were peasants. 

However, the rise of industrialization in England during the late 18th century gave birth to new social classes. These classes included the working class and the middle class, which consisted of industrialists, businessmen, and professionals.

The Aristocracy and the New Middle Class

The continent was dominated socially and politically by a landed aristocracy, living a shared lifestyle regardless of regional distinctions. They owned rural estates and city homes, conversing in French for diplomacy and high society, often linked by marriage. 

Despite the influence of the French, the continent was compared to the peasantry, who primarily worked the land. 

Industrialization in Western Europe led to urban growth and the emergence of commercial classes, encouraging the rise of the working class and middle class.

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What did Liberal Nationalism Stand for?

Liberalism is derived from the word, ¨Libe¨ which means free, and advocates for the political rights primarily for property-owing men. Those without property, as well as women, were excluded from political participation.

In 1834, a customs union known as the Zollverein was established, spearheaded by Prussia and joined by many German states. This union aimed to dismantle trade barriers and standardize currencies, reducing them from over thirty to just two.

A New Conservatism after 1815

Following the upheaval of the early 19th century, a conservative wave swept across Europe. Conservatives upheld traditional values such as monarchy, the Church, social hierarchies, and property rights. Further, these conservatives emphasize the importance of preserving the family unit.

At the Congress of Vienna in 1815, European powers including Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria convened to redraw the political map of Europe. The Bourbon dynasty was restored in France, and territories annexed under the Napolean were returned.

The Revolutionaries

In response to conservative rule, secret societies emerged throughout Europe to train revolutionaries and promote ideas of liberty. Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini founded two underground organisations. 

Young Italy in Marseilles and Young European in Berne, uniting like-minded individuals across Poland, France, Italy, and the German states.

The Age of Revolutions: 1830-1848

The early to mid-19th century witnessed a series of revolutions across Europe. In July 1830, liberal revolutionaries ousted Bourbon kings in France, establishing a constitutional monarchy under Louis Philippe. 

This wave of change also led to the independence of Belgium from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Greek struggle for autonomy in 1821.

The Romantic Imagination and National Feeling

Culture played an important role in encouraging the national identity, with art, poetry, stories, and music shaping nationalist sentiments. Romanticism, a cultural movement of the time, aimed to cultivate a unique form of nationalist fervour. 

Language also played an important role in nurturing nationalistic feelings, as seen in the Russian language imposition and subsequent rebellion in 1831.
Economic hardships plagued Europe in the 1830s, inflamed by a rapid increase in population. 

Shortage of food and high prices led to widespread poverty, culminating in popular uprisings such as the 1848 revolution in Paris, fueled by unemployment and discontent.

1848: The Revolution of the Liberals

In 1848, a revolution led by the educated middle class unfolded across Europe. Liberal demand included the establishment of parliamentary principles, constitutional governance, freedom of the press, and association. 

In Frankfurt, a diverse array of political associations convened to form an all-German National Assembly. Despite significant participation from women in the liberal movement, they were still denied the right to vote. 

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The Making of Germany and Italy

Following the tumult of 1848, Germany and Italy embarked on the path to nation-statehood. Prussia, under the leadership of Otto von Bismarck, spearheaded the unification efforts with the support of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.

In January 1871, William I of Prussia was proclaimed German Emperor, marking the culmination of the German unification process. Prussia´s dominance was evident in the modernisation of currency, banking, legal, and judicial systems across Germany.

Germany – Can the Army be the Architect of a Nation?

Following the tumult of 1848, Germany and Italy were on the path to the nation-statehood. Prussia, under the leadership of Otto von Bismarck, spearheaded the unification efforts with the support of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.

In January 1871, William I of Prussia was proclaimed German Emperor, marking the final stage of the German process. Prussia´s dominance was evident in the modernisation of currency, banking, legal, and judicial systems across Germany. 

Italy Unified

In the mid-nineteenth century, Italy was fragmented into seven states, each ruled by different kings. Notably, Sardinia-Piedmont, governed by an Italian princely house, stood out. In the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini established Young Italy, a secret society dedicated to Italian unification.

Under the leadership of Chief Minister Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont defeated Austrian forces in 1859.

Subsequently, in 1860, they extended their conquest to Southern Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, collecting support from the local peasants. Victor Emmanuel II was then proclaimed king of unified Italy in 1861.

The Strange Case of Britain

Before the eighteenth century, Britain lacked a unified national identity. However, it gradually, evolved into a powerful nation through economic growth and increasing influence.

The Act of Union in 1707, joining England and Scotland, led to the formation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, effectively bringing Scotland under English influence.

In 1801, Ireland was forcefully integrated into the United Kingdom. Symbols of this new Britain, such as the Union Jack, the national anthem, and the promotion of the English language, reflected its growing identity.

Visualising the Nation

During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, artists often personified countries as individuals, typically depicted as female figures. 

For instance, during the French Revolution, female figures symbolised abstract concepts like Liberty, Justice, and the Republic. Liberty was often represented by a red cap or a broken chain, while Justice appeared as a blinded woman carrying scales.

Nationalism and Imperialism

Nationalism waned by the late nineteenth century, leading to tensions, particularly in the Balkans. This region, encompassing modern-day countries like Romania, Bulgaria, and Greece, became a hotbed of conflict due to Ottoman influence.

Throughout the nineteenth century, the Ottoman Empire modernized and implemented internal reforms, exacerbating tensions in the Balkans. Intense rivalry among European powers for trade, colonies, and military strength culminated in several wars and eventually, the First World War.

In 1914, Europe plunged into disaster due to the alignment of nationalism with imperialism. Anti-imperial movements emerged, but they struggled to establish independent nation-states. Nevertheless, the concept of nation-states became widely accepted as natural and universal.

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10 Important Dates and Events of the Chapter ¨The Rise of Nationalism in Europe¨ Class 10 CBSE Notes Chapter 1 Notes

Let us delve into the important days and events of the chapter ¨The Rise of Nationalism in Europe¨ from the following breakdown:

1. 1707 – Kingdom of Great Britain: England and Scotland unite to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, marking a significant step towards British national identity and centralization of power.

2. 1801 – Incorporation of Ireland: Ireland is forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom, further strengthening Britain’s political influence and expanding its territorial reach.

3. 1830s – Economic Hardships: Europe faces economic challenges in the 1830s, including food shortages and population increases, leading to widespread poverty and social unrest.

4. 1848 – Revolutions Across Europe: A wave of revolutions swept across Europe in 1848, fueled by discontent with autocratic rule and demands for political reforms and national unification.

5. 1859 – Sardinia-Piedmont vs. Austria: Sardinia-Piedmont, led by Chief Minister Cavour, defeats Austrian forces in 1859, a pivotal moment in the Italian unification process.

6. 1860 – Conquest of Southern Italy: Sardinia-Piedmont marches into Southern Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, garnering support from local peasants and advancing Italian unification efforts.

7. 1861 – Proclamation of Victor Emmanuel II: Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of a unified Italy in 1861, consolidating the Italian states under a single monarch.

8. Late 19th Century – Decline of Nationalism: Nationalism waned by the late nineteenth century, leading to increased tensions in regions like the Balkans and paving the way for conflicts fueled by imperialism.

9. Late 19th Century – Ottoman Reforms: The Ottoman Empire implements reforms in the late nineteenth century, modernizing and strengthening itself, but also contributing to tensions in the Balkans.

10. 1914 – Outbreak of World War I: The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary triggered World War I in 1914, leading to widespread devastation and reshaping global geopolitics.

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Q.1. What was the rise of nationalism in Europe?

Ans: Nationalism in Europe rose in the 19th century as people felt a stronger connection to their nation, culture, and history. Influenced by events like the French Revolution, these feelings led to a desire for self-governance and national unity.

Q.2. What were the main causes of the rise of nationalism?

Ans: The main causes of the rise of nationalism were the French Revolution’s spread of liberty and equality ideas, and the Industrial Revolution’s economic changes. These factors encouraged people to feel more connected and loyal to their nation.

Q.3. What is meant by nationalism?

Ans: Nationalism means having pride in and loyalty to one’s country, and believing it should govern itself. It involves a sense of unity and shared identity with fellow citizens, often centred around common culture, language, and history.

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