NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 Agriculture Notes (Free PDF)     

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NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 Agriculture Notes

We have prepared concise notes of NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 Agriculture for you because it will help you to have concise study material before beginning your exam preparations. These notes will facilitate quick revision and come in handy the night before the exam. You can access the free Downloadable PDF to cover all topics of this Class 8 Geography lesson. 

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 

Introduction to NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 Agriculture Notes        

In NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 3, we will learn about agriculture and the different farming methods, we will also learn about different crops and agriculture development. Let us begin.    

There are three different activities: Primary, secondary and tertiary. 

Primary activities are those that include the extraction and production of natural resources. Agriculture, fishing and gathering are good examples.     

Secondary activities include the processing of these resources. Manufacturing of steel, baking bread and weaving cloth are examples of this.    

Tertiary activities provide support to the primary and secondary sectors through services. Transport, trade, banking, insurance and advertising are examples of tertiary activities.     

Also Read:  Indian Agricultural System     

Learn: When did Agriculture Begin: A Timeline

Some Facts about Agriculture     

Agriculture is of utmost importance. There are many facts behind the same. Let’s have a look at the same.     

  • Agriculture comes under the primary activity. 
  • It includes growing crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing livestock. 
  • In the world, 50 per cent of persons are engaged in agricultural activity. 
  • Two-thirds of India’s population is still dependent on agriculture.     

Some of the factors are essential for agriculture such as favourable topography of soil and climate. The land on which the crops are grown is known as arable land.     

NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 3: Agriculture

Also Read: Organic Farming Courses     

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Types of Farming     

The main requirements for agriculture are seeds, fertilisers, machinery and labour. Some of the operations involved are ploughing, sowing, irrigation, weeding and harvesting. The outputs from the system include crops, wool, dairy and poultry products.     

There are two main types of farming: Subsistence farming and Commercial farming.    

What is Subsistence Farming?     

Subsistence farming plays a crucial role in the life of a farmer. Let us look at what subsistence farming is and what it includes:     

  • It is practised to meet the needs of a farmer’s family. 
  • It includes low levels of technology and household labour.     
  • The output produced is small.     
  • Subsistence farming can be further classified as intensive subsistence and primitive subsistence farming.     

Intensive Subsistence Farming

  • On a small land plot, a crop is cultivated using small tools and more labour.          
  • Climate with a large number of days with sunshine and fertile soils permits the growing of more than one crop annually on the same plot.             
  • It is prevalent in the thickly populated areas of the monsoon regions of south, southeast and east Asia.             
  • Examples include rice, wheat, maize, pulses, oilseeds, etc.     

Primitive Subsistence Farming

It includes shifting cultivation and nomadic herding.     

Shifting Cultivation     
  • It is also known as ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.             
  • A plot of land is cleared by felling the trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with the soil and crops like maize, yam, potatoes and cassava are grown. After the soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned and the cultivator moves to a new plot.                          
  • It is practised in the thickly forested areas of the Amazon basin, tropical Africa, parts of southeast Asia and Northeast India.    
Nomadic Herding      
  • In this type of farming, herdsmen move from place to place with their animals for fodder and water, along defined routes. This type of movement arises in response to climatic constraints and terrain.     
  • Sheep, camel, yak and goats are most commonly reared. They provide milk, meat, wool, hides and other products to the herders and their families.     
  • It is practised in the semi-arid and arid regions of the Sahara, Central Asia and some parts of India, like Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir.           

Also Read: Branches of Soil Science: Definition & Examples     

Learn: Soil Pollution

What is Commercial Farming?                

In commercial farming, the crops are grown and animals are reared for sale in the market. The area cultivated and the amount of capital used is large. Most of the work is done by machines. Commercial farming includes commercial grain farming, mixed farming and plantation agriculture.                                                                    

Commercial Grain Farming     

  • Commercial grain farming is practised in temperate grasslands of North America, Europe and Asia. These areas are sparsely populated with large farms spreading over hundreds of hectares. 
  • Severe winters restrict the growing season and only a single crop can be grown.         
  •  Wheat and maize are common commercially grown grains.                          

Mixed Farming     

  • In this farming, the land is used for growing food and fodder crops and rearing livestock.     
  • It is practised in Europe, the Eastern USA, Argentina, southeast Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.               


  • Plantations are a type of commercial farming where single crops of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton are grown. 
  • Large amounts of labour and capital are required. 
  • The produce may be processed on the farm itself or in nearby factories. 
  • The development of a transport network is essential for such farming. 
  • Major plantations are found in the tropical regions of the world. 
  • Rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka are some examples.     

Explore: Branches of Geology: Definition & Examples

Major Crops     

Some of the important crops that are grown to meet the requirements of the growing population are mentioned below:     


  • Rice is the major food crop of the world. 
  • It is the staple diet of the tropical and subtropical regions. 
  • Rice needs high temperature, high humidity and rainfall. It grows best in alluvial clayey soil, which can retain water. 
  • China leads in the production of rice followed by India, Japan, Sri Lanka and Egypt. 
  • In favourable climatic conditions as in West Bengal and Bangladesh, two to three crops are grown in a year.     


  • Wheat requires moderate temperature and rainfall during the growing season and bright sunshine at the time of harvest. 
  • It thrives best in well-drained loamy soil. 
  • Wheat is grown extensively in the USA, Canada, Argentina, Russia, Ukraine, Australia and India. 
  • In India, it is grown in winter.           
NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 3: Wheat and Rice Farming


  • They are also known as coarse grains.    
  • They can be grown on less fertile and sandy soils.     
  • It is a hardy crop that needs low rainfall and high to moderate temperatures.         
  • Jowar, bajra and ragi are grown in India.     
  • Other countries are Nigeria, China and Niger.      


  • Maize requires moderate temperature, rainfall and lots of sunshine. 
  • It needs well-drained fertile soils. 
  • Maize is grown in North America, Brazil, China, Russia, Canada, India, and Mexico.     


  • Cotton requires high temperatures, light rainfall, two hundred and ten frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth. 
  • It grows best on black and alluvial soils. 
  • China, USA, India, Pakistan, Brazil and Egypt are the leading producers of cotton. 
  • It is one of the main raw materials for the cotton textile industry.     


  • Jute was also known as the ‘Golden Fibre’. 
  • It grows well on alluvial soil and requires high temperature, heavy rainfall and humid climate. 
  • This crop is grown in the tropical areas.     
  • India and Bangladesh are the leading producers of jute.           


  • Coffee requires a warm and wet climate and well-drained loamy soil. 
  • Hill slopes are more suitable for the growth of this crop. 
  • Brazil is the leading producer followed by Columbia and India.          

Also Read: Think You Know Your Coffee? Take this Coffee Quiz and Find Out!


  • Tea is a beverage crop grown on plantations. 
  • This requires a cool climate and well-distributed high rainfall throughout the year for the growth of its tender leaves.     
  • It needs well-drained loamy soils and gentle slopes. 
  • Labour in large numbers is required to pick the leaves. Kenya, India, China, and Sri Lanka produce the best quality tea in the world.            
NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 3: Coffee and Tea

What is Agricultural Development?           

Agricultural Development refers to efforts made to increase farm production to meet the growing demand of increasing population.            

The ultimate aim of agricultural development is to increase food security.              

The ways in which agricultural development can be achieved are mentioned below:     

  • Increasing the cropped area.       
  • Increasing the number of groups grown.    
  • By improving irrigation facilities.     
  • By using fertilisers and high-yielding variety of seeds.                 

Agriculture has developed in different places in different parts of the world. Developing countries with large populations usually practise intensive agriculture where crops are grown on small holdings mostly for subsistence. Larger holdings are more suitable for commercial agriculture as in the USA, Canada and Australia. 

Source: Mishri Education Classes

Important Definitions in NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 3: Agriculture          

Some important definitions covered in the  NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 notes are mentioned below:    

  • Agriculture:  The science and art of cultivation on the soil, raising crops and rearing livestock. It is also called farming.     
  • Sericulture: Commercial rearing of silkworms. It may supplement the income of the farmer.    
  • Pisciculture:  Breeding of fish in specially constructed tanks and ponds.     
  • Viticulture: Cultivation of grapes.    
  • Horticulture: Growing vegetables, flowers and fruits for commercial use.     
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 
What are the Branches of Geography?Scope of Geography
Green Revolution60+ Slogans on World Environment Day
National Farmers DayWorld Nature Conservation Day 
Essay on Indian FarmersEssay on Agriculture
CBSE Notes Class 8 EnglishCBSE Notes Class 8 History CBSE Notes Class 8 Geography
CBSE Notes Class 8 CivicsCBSE Notes Class 8 MathematicsCBSE Notes Class 8 Science


Q 1. What is agriculture in NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 Agriculture Notes?     

Ans: Agriculture is the science and art of cultivation on the soil, raising crops and rearing livestock. It is also called farming.                           

Q 2. What is a short note on agricultural development?  

Ans: Agricultural Development refers to efforts made to increase farm production to meet the growing demand of increasing population. The ultimate aim of agricultural development is to increase food security.              

Q 3. What are the two main types of farming?

There are two main types of farming: Subsistence farming and Commercial farming.    

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