NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 Industries Notes (Free PDF)     

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NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 Industries Notes

Memorising NCERT chapters becomes easy when you have well-written notes. Keeping this in mind we have prepared for you NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 ‘Industries’: Notes. These notes have been prepared in such a manner so as to facilitate you to easily understand the whole chapter and will also serve as a method of quick revision before your exams. Now let’s explore these notes!     

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 

Introduction to NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 Industries Notes     

In NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 4, we will learn about the different industries, the factors that affect their location, their distribution, etc. Let us begin.    

Changing raw materials into products of more value to people comes under secondary activities or industries. 

An economic activity that is concerned with the production of goods,  extraction of minerals or the provision of services, etc is known as an industry.     

We have the iron and steel industry (production of goods), coal mining industry (extraction of coal) and tourism industry (service provider).     

Also Read: 🏙️ Industrialisation (1760 to 1840): History and Tracing the Spread

How do we Classify Industries?     

Industries can be classified on the basis of raw materials, size and ownership. Let us now understand the classification of industries in detail.     

Industries Classified based on Raw Materials     

Industries may be agro-based, mineral-based, marine-based and forest-based depending on the type of raw materials they use.     

Agro-Based Industries     

  • They use plant and animal-based products as their raw materials.      
  • Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy products and leather industries are examples of agro-based industries.     

Mineral-based industries     

  • These are primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials.      
  • The products of these industries feed other industries.     
  • Iron made from iron ore is the product of mineral-based industry. This is used as raw material for the manufacture of a number of other products, such as heavy machinery, building materials and railway coaches.     

Marine-based industries     

  • They use products from the sea and oceans as raw materials.               
  • Industries processing seafood or manufacturing fish oil are some examples.     

Forest-based industries     

  • They utilise forest produce as raw materials.     
  • The industries associated with forests are pulp and paper, pharmaceuticals, furniture and buildings.     

Industries Classified based on Size     

It refers to the amount of capital invested, the number of people employed and the volume of production. Based on size, industries can be classified into small-scale and large-scale industries.     

Small-Scale Industries     

  • Small-scale industries use a lesser amount of capital and technology as compared to large-scale industries that produce large volumes of products.     
  • Cottage or household industries are a type of small-scale industry where the products are manufactured by hand, by the artisans.     
  • Silk weaving and food processing industries are small-scale industries.     
  • Basket weaving, pottery and other handicrafts are examples of cottage industry.     

Large-Scale Industries     

  • Investment of capital is higher and the technology used is superior in large-scale industries. 
  • Production of automobiles and heavy machinery are large-scale industries.     

Industries Classified based on Ownership     

Industries can be classified into private sector, state-owned or public sector, joint sector and cooperative sector.     

Private sector industries

  • These are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. 
  • The public sector industries are owned and operated by the government, such as Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and Steel Authority of India Limited.     

Joint sector industries     

  • They are owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals.     
  • Maruti Udyog Limited is an example of a joint-sector industry.     

Co-operative sector industries     

  • These are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. 
  • Anand Milk Union Limited and Sudha Dairy are success stories of a cooperative venture.     NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 4: Industries

Also Read: 🇬🇧 English Industrial Revolution: Causes and Impact on Society

What are the Factors Affecting Location of Industries?     

The factors affecting the location of industries are the availability of raw materials, land, water, labour, power, capital, transport and market.     

Industries are situated where some or all of these factors are easily available.     

Sometimes, the government provides incentives like subsidised power, lower transport costs and other infrastructure so that industries may be located in backward areas. Industrialisation often leads to the development and growth of towns and cities.     

Industrial System     

  • It consists of inputs, processes and outputs.     
  • The inputs are the raw materials, labour and costs of land, transport, power and other infrastructure.     
  • The outputs are the end product and the income earned from it.     
  • The processes include a wide range of activities that convert the raw material into finished products.     
  • In the case of the textile industry the inputs may be cotton, human labour, factory and transport cost. The processes include ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing and printing. The output is the shirt you wear.     

Industrial Regions     

  • Industrial regions emerge when several industries are located close to each other and share the benefits of their closeness. 
  • Major industrial regions of the world are eastern North America, western and central Europe, eastern Europe and eastern Asia.      
  • Major industrial regions tend to be located in temperate areas, near seaports and especially near coal fields.     
  • India has several industrial regions like MumbaiPune cluster, Bangalore-Tamil Nadu region, Hugli region, Ahmedabad-Baroda region, Chottanagpur industrial belt, Vishakhapatnam-Guntur belt, Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut region and the Kollam-Thiruvanathapuram industrial cluster.     

Also Read: Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners

Distribution of Major Industries     

The world’s major industries are the iron and steel industry, the textile industry and the information technology industry.     

The iron and steel and textile industries are the older industries while information technology is an emerging industry. 

The countries in which the iron and steel industry is located are Germany, USA, China, Japan and Russia. 

The textile industry is concentrated in India, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan. The major hubs of the Information technology industry are the Silicon Valley of Central California and the Bangalore region of India.     

Iron and Steel Industry     

  • The iron and steel industry comprises of various inputs, processes and outputs.      
  • This is a feeder industry whose products are used as raw materials for other industries. 
  • The inputs for the industry include raw materials such as iron ore, coal and limestone, along with labour, capital, site and other infrastructure. 
  • The process of converting iron ore into steel involves many stages. 
  • The raw material is put in the blast furnace where it undergoes smelting. 
  • It is then refined. 
  • The output obtained is steel which may be used by other industries as a raw material.     

Characteristics of steel:     

  • Steel is tough.     
  • It can easily be shaped, cut, or made into wire.      
  • Special alloys of steel can be made by adding small amounts of other metals such as aluminium, nickel, and copper. Alloys give steel unusual hardness, toughness, or ability to resist rust.     NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 4: Manufacturing of Steel

Uses of Steel     

  • Steel is often called the backbone of modern industry.     
  • Almost everything we use is either made of iron or steel or has been made with tools and machinery of these metals.     
  • Ships, trains, trucks, and autos are made largely of steel. Even the safety pins and the needles you use are made from steel.     
  • Oil wells are drilled with steel machinery.     
  • Steel pipelines transport oil.     
  • Minerals are mined with steel equipment.     
  • Farm machines are mostly steel.     
  • Large buildings have steel frameworks.     

Some Facts about the Iron and Steel Industry:     

  • Before 1800 A.D. the iron and steel industry was located where raw materials, power supply and running water were easily available.     
  • Later the ideal location for the industry was near coal fields and close to canals and railways.     
  • After 1950, the iron and steel industry began to be located on large areas of flat land near seaports. This is because by this time steel works had become very large and iron ore had to be imported from overseas.     
  • In India, the iron and steel industry has developed taking advantage of raw materials, cheap labour, transport and market.     
  • All the important steel-producing centres such as Bhilai, Durgapur, Burnpur, Jamshedpur, Rourkela, and Bokaro are situated in a region that spreads over four states — West Bengal, Jharkhand, Odisha and Chhattisgarh.     
  • Bhadravati and Vijay Nagar in Karnataka, Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh, and Salem in Tamil Nadu are other important steel centres utilising local resources.     


Let us learn about the various industrial plants that were set up in Jamshedpur.     

  • Before 1947, there was only one iron and steel plant in the country – Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited (TISCO).     
  • It was privately owned. After Independence, the government took the initiative and set up several iron and steel plants.     
  • TISCO was started in 1907 at Sakchi, near the confluence of the rivers Subarnarekha and Kharkai in Jharkhand. Later on Sakchi was renamed as Jamshedpur.     
  • Geographically, Jamshedpur is the most conveniently situated iron and steel centre in the country.     
  • Sakchi was chosen to set up the steel plant for several reasons.     
  • This place was only 32 km away from Kalimati station on the Bengal-Nagpur railway line.     
  • It was close to the iron ore, coal and manganese deposits as well as to Kolkata, which provided a large market.     
  • TISCO, gets coal from Jharia coalfields, and iron ore, limestone, dolomite and manganese from Odisha and Chhattisgarh.     
  • The Kharkai and Subarnarekha rivers ensured sufficient water supply. Government initiatives provided adequate capital for its later development.     
  • In Jamshedpur, several other industrial plants were set up after TISCO. They produce chemicals, locomotive parts, agricultural equipment, machinery, tinplate, cable and wire.     
  • The development of the iron and steel industry opened the doors to rapid industrial development in India.     
  •  Almost all sectors of the Indian industry depend heavily on the iron and steel industry for their basic infrastructure.     
  • The Indian iron and steel industry consists of large integrated steel plants as well as mini steel mills.     
  • It also includes secondary producers, rolling mills and ancillary industries.     

Also Read: What is the Full Form of SAIL?


Let us learn about the most important steel city in the USA i.e. Pittsburgh.     

  • The steel industry in Pittsburgh enjoys locational advantages.     
  • Some of the raw material such as coal is available locally, while the iron ore comes from the iron mines in Minnesota, about 1500 km from Pittsburgh. Between these mines and Pittsburgh is one of the world’s best routes for shipping ore cheaply – the famous Great Lakes waterway.     
  • Trains carry the ore from the Great Lakes to the Pittsburgh area. The Ohio, the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers provide adequate water supply. Today, very few of the large steel mills are in Pittsburgh itself.     
  • They are located in the valleys of the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers above Pittsburgh and along the Ohio River below it.     
  • Finished steel is transported to the market by both land and water routes. The Pittsburgh area has many factories other than steel mills.     
  • These use steel as their raw material to make many different products such as railroad equipment, heavy machinery and rails.     

Read More: What is the Full Form of MIDC?

Source: Study Squad

Important Definitions in NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 Industries Notes

Some important definitions covered in the  NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 notes are mentioned below:     

  • Smelting: It is the process in which metals are extracted from their ores by heating beyond the melting point.     
  • Industry: An economic activity that is concerned with the production of goods,  extraction of minerals or the provision of services, etc is known as an industry.     
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 
What are the Branches of Geography?Scope of Geography
A Career in Metallurgical EngineeringApplications of Nanotechnology In Different Sectors
What is the Full Form of NASSCOM?Red Revolution: A Boom in the Tomato and Meat Industry
Essay on Indian FarmersEssay on Agriculture
CBSE Notes Class 8 EnglishCBSE Notes Class 8 History CBSE Notes Class 8 Geography
CBSE Notes Class 8 CivicsCBSE Notes Class 8 MathematicsCBSE Notes Class 8 Science


Ques 1. What is agro-based industries?     

Ans: They use plant and animal-based products as their raw materials. Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy products and leather industries are examples of agro-based industries.     

Ques 2. How are industries classified?     

Ans: Industries can be classified on the basis of raw materials, size and ownership.     

Ques 3: What is joint sector industry in NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 Industries Notes?     

Ans: They are owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Maruti Udyog Limited is an example of a joint-sector industry.     

Follow Leverage Edu for complete study material on CBSE Notes of Class 8 Geography.     

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