Essay on Solar System for School Students

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Essay on Solar System

Essay on Solar System: Our solar system consists of one Sun and eight (formerly nine) planets. These eight planets are gravitationally bound by the Sun on their orbits. Apart from these eight planets, there are more than 210 known planetary satellites, asteroids, comets, and other icy bodies that are assembled in the Solar system. 

The first four planets are called terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars) the two gas planets (Jupiter and Saturn), and the other remaining ones are ice giants (Neptune and Uranus.)

Learn about the smallest planet in our solar system


The Sun is the primary source of light and energy and is about 93 million miles from the Earth. It is the only star in our solar system and one of the more than 100 billion stars in the Milky Way. The surface of the Sun is about 5,500 degrees Celsius (10,000 degrees Fahrenheit) hot and the temperature reaches 15 million Celsius (27 million Fahrenheit). 

In terms of age and size, the Sun is 4.5 billion years old, composed of hydrogen and helium with a diameter of about 865,000 miles which is approximately 1.4 million kilometres. 

Inner Planets (Terrestrial Planets):

The planets that are made of rocks and metals are known as Inner Planets or Terrestrial Planets. These planets are comparatively small in size compared to the other outer planets. The description of these four planets is as follows:

1. Mercury—The Swift Planet

Mercury is the swiftest planet in our solar system which completes an orbit around the Sun in just 88 Earth days. Its proximity to the Sun contributes to extreme temperature variations, from scorching highs to freezing lows. 

With minimal atmosphere, Mercury lacks the protective blanket found on the Earth, exposing its surface to harsh solar radiation. 

2. Venus—The Evening Star or Morning Star

Venus, which is often referred to as the evening star or morning star, depends on its position relative to the Sun. When Venus is trailing the Sun, it is the evening star, visible after the sunset. Conversely, when ahead of the Sun, it is the morning star, appearing before sunrise. 

This dual identity arises from Venus´s orbit, positioning it closer to the Sun than Earth and causing varied visibility during different parts of the orbital journey. 

3. Earth—Blue Planet

The home planet to all living things is Earth. It is the only planet that is known for the existence of life. 

The surface of the Earth is made up of the crust, the core, and the mantle. It is a giant rocky planet with a circumference of about 40,075 kilometers; 71 percent or ¾ th of the Earth is covered with oceans and seas. A large area covered with water makes this planet a Blue Planet. 

4. Mars—Red Planet

The fourth planet of the solar system, Mars, is the most explored planet by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA.) The reason behind so many missions or research for Mars is to hope for the existence of extraterrestrial life on the planet. 

Apart from the possibility of life on Mars, the planet is also known for its presence of iron oxide that turns the planet reddish in appearance. 

Want to know more about our Planet Earth? Read Essay on Earth for more information.

Outer Planets (Gas Giants)

5. Jupiter—King of Planets

Jupiter is the first planet of our solar system in the category of outer planets, also known as gas giants. According to NASA, the U.S. government agency, the planet’s size is more than twice that of all other planets combined. 

Except for Jupiter’s size, the solar system’s first outer planet is made up of leftover gases from the formation of the Sun. 

6. Saturn—Ringed Planet

The sixth planet from the Sun is Saturn. It is also known as the ringed planet and the second-largest solar system planet. 

The three distinctive features that make Saturn different from other planets are its huge 145 moons, visibility from the Earth with the naked eye, and the seven main rings named D, C, B, A, F, G, and E from the outward side of the planet. 

7. Uranus—Ice Giant

The seventh planet from the Sun, Uranus, is one of the two ice giants in the list of the outer solar system. The planet is featured with the third largest diameter which makes the planet the third largest in the solar system. 

Other than massive size, Uranus is made up of three dense icy materials, methane, ammonia, and water – above all a small rocky core. 

8. Neptune—Blue Giant

The third largest and eighth planet of the solar system is Neptune. According to NASA, the farthest planet from the Sun is more than 17 times Earth’s size and nearly 58 times the dimensions of Earth’s volume. 

The cool blue planet, due to the absorption of infrared light by the planet’s Methane atmosphere, comprises a core with the capacity to pick up a lot of gas, making Neptune impossible for the existence of life. 

Also Read: Essay on Space Exploration

The Moon

Our Solar system is incomplete without the Moon, a planetary large natural object that travels around the Earth. However, the Moon does not make its light but it reflects the light of the sunlight. 

The total number of moons in our Solar system is 290, out of which one Moon belongs to Earth, two to Mars, 27 to Uranus, 95 to Jupiter, 146 to Saturn, 5 to dwarf planet Pluto, and 14 to Neptune.

The solar system consists of the Sun, terrestrial planets, gas giants, Earth’s Moon, celestial bodies, and various other objects. The unique formation and dynamics continue to amaze scientists offering a glimpse into the vastness and beauty of our cosmic neighbourhood. 

Also Read: How to Prepare for UPSC in 6 Months?


Q.1. Which theory for a solar system is best?

Ans: The Nebular Theory, which states that the solar system is made up of interstellar clouds of dust and gas, is the best theory for the solar system.

Q.2. Who invented the solar system in India?

Ans: Arybhatta, the mathematician and astronomer was the first to discover that the Earth revolves around the Sun. 

Q.3. How many solar systems are there in the universe?

Ans: There is only one solar system in the universe. 

Q.4. How many stars are there in the solar system?

Ans: Our solar system consists of only stars and we know it as The Sun. 

Q.5. How big is our solar system?

Ans: The size of the solar system is almost 12 trillion miles, nearly 2 light years. 

Related Articles: 

What are the Various Branches of Astronomy?NCERT Class 6 Geography: Chapter 1 The Earth in the Solar System
Gaganyaan Mission 2023: The Mission Will End To Which Planet?How to Become an Astronaut in India? 
Is Life Possible on the Moon?Is There Gravity on the Moon?

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