What is Database Architecture?

6 minute read

There is a good chance that you will require a database to store data when creating a modern application. Depending on how your application will use this data, there are numerous ways to architect software solutions that use a database. The various types of database architecture will be covered in this article, along with a three-tier application architecture that is widely used in contemporary web applications. You will also get to know about the steps to becoming a Database Architect, salary, and more. Enjoy Reading!

What is a Database?

A database is a methodical or well-organized grouping of associated data that is kept in a way that makes it simple to access, retrieve, manage, and update. It is the location of all data storage, similar to a library that holds a wide selection of books from various genres. Consider data to be books.

In a database, you can set up a table with rows and columns of data. By indexing the data, it is simple to locate and retrieve it once more as needed. Databases are used to manage a large number of websites on the Internet. Database handlers are used to create databases so that users can access the data through a single set of software applications.

Different databases include MySQL, SQL Server, MongoDB, Oracle Database, PostgreSQL, Informix, Sybase, and others. DBMS is used to manage these contemporary databases. To manipulate the data in a database, Structured Query Language, or SQL as it is more commonly known, is used.

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What is Database Architecture?

Programming languages are used in database architecture to create a specific kind of business or organisational software. The design, development, implementation, and maintenance of computer programs that store and organise information for businesses, agencies, and institutions are the focus of database architecture. A database architect creates and puts into use software to satisfy user needs.

A DBMS’s architecture determines how it will be designed. It may be hierarchical, decentralised, or centralised. A DBMS’s architecture can be thought of as either single-tier or multi-tiered. Following is a classification of the tiers:

  • 1-tier Architecture
  • 2-tier Architecture
  • 3-tier Architecture

Types of DBMS Architecture

Let’s understand the types of DBMS Architecture in detail. As discussed above, there are mainly three types of DBMS Architecture. These are explained below:

1-Tier Architecture

The user has direct access to the database in this architecture. It implies that the user can use the DBMS while sitting down on it. Any modifications made here will have an immediate impact on the database. It doesn’t give end users a useful tool. The 1-Tier architecture is used for local application development, allowing programmers to communicate directly with the database for quick responses.

A mobile application using MongoDB’s Realm open-source mobile database as its local database is an illustration of a one-tier architecture. The user’s mobile device is then running both the application and the database.

2-Tier Architecture

A basic client-server architecture is a two-tier architecture. Applications on the client end can speak directly with the database on the server end when using a two-tier architecture. APIs like ODBC and JDBC are used for this interaction.

Client-side computing is used to run the application programmes and user interfaces.

Functionalities like query processing and transaction management are provided by the server side. The client-side application creates a connection with the server side in order to communicate with the DBMS.

When a desktop application connected to a single database that was housed on an on-premise database server, such as an internal customer relationship management (CRM) that joins to an Access database, this architecture used to be more prevalent.

3-Tier Architecture

Between the client and server, there is another layer in the three-tier architecture. The client and server cannot speak to one another directly in this architecture. The client-side application communicates with an application server, which then does so with the database system.

Beyond the application server, the end user is unaware of the database’s existence. The database is also unaware of any users besides those who are using the application.

When a web application is complex, the 3-Tier architecture is used.

A React application that connects to a Node.js back end would be an illustration of this style of architecture. The native driver in Node.js is used by the back end to process the requests and retrieve the required data from a database, such as MongoDB Atlas.

What Does a Database Architect Do?

Database architects are experts in database design and development. These experts develop these new databases to aid companies in running daily operations while remaining trustworthy and safe. These professionals’ specific tasks might include:

  • Establishing database backup and recovery procedures
  • Establish architectural strategies in accordance with the needs of the business
  • Creating application models
  • Upgrades to database applications and test systems
  • Observe production equipment
  • Creating standards for database development.

Database architects, also known as database administrators, typically work full-time in a variety of industries, such as managing patient data in healthcare or customer information in retail. To solve technical problems with database systems, database architects need the ability to think critically and solve problems. They also need the ability to communicate with managers, developers, and other professionals.

How to Become a Database Architect?

Although some positions might call for a master’s degree, most database architects or administrators need at least a bachelor’s degree. There are some bachelor’s degree programmes that offer specialisations with databases, even though database architects can pursue any bachelor’s degree in the fields of computer science or information technology. In disciplines like computer and information science, information technology, or computer information systems, these degree programmes are typically offered as Bachelor of Science (BS) degrees. Many offer specialisations in areas like database management, administration, or programming. These bachelor’s degree programmes offer courses in a variety of subjects, including

  • Structured query language (SQL)
  • Systems design
  • Data structures
  • Programming
  • Database scripting
  • Web application development

Some employers might favour applicants with master’s degrees. Information technology master’s degree programmes frequently offer Master of Science (MS) degrees and may offer specialised concentrations in fields like database design or database design and administration. These degree programmes are offered online and on campus. For students who want to advance their education in the field, there are doctoral programmes in database administration available in on-campus and online formats, though they are not typically required.

Salary in Database Architecture

The average annual salary for a database architect in India is 20.6 lakhs, with salaries ranging from 10.4 lakhs to 38.1 lakhs. The most recent 693 salaries provided by Database Architects were used to estimate salaries. This data is provided by AmbitionBox.

Key Takeaway

A database’s design, development, implementation, and maintenance are all aided by its architecture. The client, server, and database all belong on the same machine in a one-tier database system architecture.

When using a database management system, a two-tier architecture is one in which the presentation layer runs on a client and the data is stored on a server. The Presentation layer (PC, Tablet, Mobile, etc.), Application layer (server), and Database Server make up a three-tier client-server architecture.


Q1. What is database architecture?

Ans. In businesses and organisations, database architecture entails using programming languages to create software. It primarily entails the development, design, implementation, and maintenance of the computer programmes used by businesses to store and manage their data. A DBMS’s design is determined by its architecture.

Q2. What are 2-tier and 3-tier architecture DBMS?

Ans. Client-server architecture describes the two-tier database architecture. An example of a web-based application is the three-tier database architecture. The Data Tier (Database Tier) and the Client Tier make up the majority of its layers. The Data Layer, the Business Layer, and the Client Layer make up the majority of its layers.

Q3. What are DBMS architecture and its types?

Ans. The structure of a particular database system and how users are connected to it are described by the DBMS architecture. The database’s performance is impacted by its architecture. All the DBMS components are housed on a single server in a single-tier architecture. The easiest strategy is this one.

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