Kakatiya Dynasty: History, Rulers & Decline

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Kakatiya Dynasty

The Kakatiya Dynasty was established in the 12th century, this dynasty ruled over the Southern region of present-day Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Southern Odisha and Telangana. With a remarkable legacy spanning several centuries, the Kakatiyas contributed extensively to the cultural, architectural, and economic development of the region. In this article, we will delve into the origins, list of rulers and decline of the Kakatiya Dynasty elaborately. 

History and Origin of the Kakatiya Dynasty

The founder of the Kakatiya Dynasty was Betaraju, who was later named Prola Raja. 

  • In the 9th and 10th centuries, the dynasty was the subordinates of the Rashtrakutas Dynasty
  • But when the Chaukyas of Kalyani defeated the Rashtrakutas, the Kakatiya dynasty ultimately became the feudatories of the Chalukya dynasty.  
  • Later, when Ammaraja II, the king of the Chalukya dynasty died, Betaraja I took matters into his hands.
  • Kakatiya Dynasty rose to prominence with their capital city, Orugallu (present-day Warangal), becoming a centre of art, culture, and governance.

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List of Kakatiya Rulers

Here is a list of Kakatiya Rulers along with their contribution. Let’s explore

Kakatiya Rulers 
Betaraja I1000-10521. He was the Kakatiya dynasty.
2. He was a feudatory chief of the Western Chalukyas of Kalyani.
3. His capital was Koravi, a small Deccan region that consolidated the power of the dynasty and expanded its territories.
Prolaraja I1052-10761. Successor of Betaraja I.Again a feudatory of Kalyani Chalukyas and a staunch believer of Lord Shiva.
2. He was also known as ‘Air Gajakesari’.
3. He is credited for constructing the Kesari Tatakam.
4. During his rule, he acquired hereditary claims of Anumakonda Vishaya from the king Someshwara of Chalukya of Kalyani.
Betaraja II1076-11081. Betaraja II was also a feudatory of Chalukyas of Kalyani.
2. He is credited for constructing at Anumakonda a large tank. 
Prolaraja II1110-1158Prolaraja II declared himself as the first sovereign ruler of the Kakatiya dynasty.
Rudradeva1158-11951. King Rudradeva was one of the prominent kings who expanded the territory through military conquests.
2. He established Warangal as his capital. 
3. In his tenure, he commissioned various public works projects which also included the construction of various temples and irrigation systems.
4. He is credited for building the grand Rudreshwar temple located in Hanamkonda.
5. Rudradeva also wrote the book Nitisara in Sanskrit language.
Mahadeva1195-11981. Mahadeva was the successor of Rudradeva. 
2. He further consolidated the kingdom.
3. He lost his life while besieging the capital of the Yadava Dynasty, Devagiri
Ganapati Deva1198-12621. He is considered as the greatest king of the dynasty. Ganapati Deva also took the title of ‘Rayagajekesar.’
2. He is responsible for issuing the ‘Abhaya Sasanam’ at the Motupalli port.
3. During his rule, he turned the capital city Warangal into a centre of culture and trade. 
4. Credited for commissioning the construction of the magnificent Warangal Fort and the Thousand Pillar Temple.
Rudrama Devi1262-12961. Recognized as one of the few women rulers of South India.
2. She continued her father’s legacy of military conquests and extension of the kingdom.
3. However, her reign was marked by conflicts with neighbouring kingdoms which also resulted in the expansion of the kingdom’s territory.
4. It was during her rule, that the Italian traveller Marco Polo paid a visit to the Motupalli port. 
Prataparudra1296-13231. He was the last ruler of the Kakatiya dynasty.
2. Grandson of Queen Rudrama Devi. 
3. His rule faced threats and conflicts with the Delhi Sultanate.
Rani Rudrama Devi, Credit – dilipkumar.in

Decline of the Dynasty

The Kakatiya Dynasty reached its peak under the reign of Ganapati Deva and Rani Rudrama Devi. However, after their rule, the kingdom faced various challenges which eventually led to its decline. Some of the factors that contributed to the decline of the dynasty are:

  1. Weakening Administration: The decline of the Kakatiya Dynasty was also marked by the weakening of the administrative system. The lack of strong leadership and internal conflicts further hastened their downfall.
  2. Delhi Sultanate Invasions: The Delhi Sultanate, under Alauddin Khilji, invaded the Kakatiya Kingdom first in 1303, capturing the fortress of Kaulas and then again invaded the kingdom in 1310, finally capturing the capital city of Warangal. 

However, with a treaty, the Kakatiya rulers were able to keep the administration, even though the kingdom was in a weak state. But again, in 1323, the Delhi Sultanate Muhammad Bin Tughlaq from the Tughlaq dynasty invaded the Kakatiya kingdom. The mighty Kakatiya army under the leadership of King Prataprudra did put up a valiant fight, but eventually succumbed to the superior forces of the Delhi Sultanate.

  1. Political Instability: After the defeat of the Kakatiya Dynasty, the region witnessed a period of political instability with multiple local chieftains vying for power. This further weakened the once-mighty dynasty
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The Kakatiya Dynasty was a prominent force during the medieval period in India. Its rise to power, economic contributions, and eventual decline showcase the ebb and flow of dynastic power during the medieval period. That’s all about the Kakatiya Dynasty! If you want to know more about topics like this, then visit our general knowledge page! Alternatively, you can also read our blog on general knowledge for competitive exams!

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