Tughlaq Dynasty: Rulers of Delhi Sultanate

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Tughlaq Dynasty

After the end of the Khalji or Khilji Dynasty under Alauddin Khalji, the rise of the Tughlaq dynasty under Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq began during the medieval period and was of Turk-Indian origin. In 1312 the Tughlaq Dynasty began and came to an end after 101 years in 1413. Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq, Muhammad bin Tughlaq and Firuz Shah Tughlaq ruled over the Delhi Sultanate. There were numerous foreign and domestic policy changes in India during their time. 

An image of the map of India during the Tughlaq Dynasty.

Who were the Important Rulers during the Tughlaq Dynasty?

There were 3 significant rulers during the dynasty and they are:

  1. Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq or Ghazi Malik or Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq
  2. Muhammad bin Tughlaq
  3. Firuz Shah Tughlaq or Firoz Shah Tughlaq

Also Read: Lodi Dynasty 

Who was Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq or Ghazi Malik or Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq?

  • Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq came from very humble beginnings.
  • He came to the thrown in 1320 A.D. and was the founder of the Tughlaq Dynasty.
  • His policy towards the Mongols was extremely brutal. Öljaitü, also known as Mohammad-e Khodabande’s representatives were severely punished and killed by Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq. 
  • The construction of the Tughlaqbad Fort began under him.
  • A stable administration which mostly included Multanis who were his natives from Punjab and Dipalpur was the reason he was able to come into power. 
Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq's Tomb.

What were the Foreign and Domestic Policies of Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq?

  • The disorder that entailed was restored by Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq.  
  • Agriculture, Irrigation, Judicial, Postal Arrangements and the Military were given importance by him. 
  • Warangal, Odisha or Utkala, Bengal were brought under his control. 
  • The invasions of north India by Mongol leaders subsided as he captured them.

Why did the Rule of Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq End?

While Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq was in Bengal attending a victory event he was crushed to death in 1325A.D. He was succeeded by his son, Ulugh Juna Khan. 

Also Read: Chola Dynasty 

Who was Muhammad bin Tughlaq?

Ulugh Juna Khan claimed the title of Muhammad bin Tughlaq when he ascended the throne in 1325 A.D. He ruled for 26 years and was an intellectual who had an interest in poetry, the Quran, Fiqh and other areas. During his rule, he captured Warangal in 1327 A.D, leading to the all-time high political and administrative unity of India.

What were the Domestic Policies of Muhammad bin Tughlaq?

  • Muhammad bin Tughlaq increased the taxation in the area of Doab. 
  • Food shortages were at an all-time high as the farmers of that area headed out to the forests to get away from the taxation. 
  • He faced numerous difficulties when he instructed the shift of his capital to Devagiri from Delhi. Along with that, the people of the state were instructed to do so too and later they were told to return back to Delhi.
  • The Copper currency system was introduced by Muhammad bin Tughlaq which was a failure because the value of the copper coins dropped.
  • He raised an army of 370,000 people to take over Transoxiana, Iraq and Khurasan. 
  • To avoid a Mongol invasion by the Mongol leader Tamashirin to whom he gave a large presents, there was a huge burden on the state treasure. 
  •  Due to Muhammad bin Tughlaq’s impulsive judgments and flawed policy implementation, the downfall of the Delhi Sultanate was imminent. 

Interesting Fact: Copper Coins were also used during the Mauryan Empire in 321 A.D.-185 A.D.

Copper Coins during the rule of  Muhammad bin Tughlaq.

Also Read: Babur: The First Mughal Emperor

Who was Firuz Shah Tughlaq or Firoz Shah Tughlaq?

Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq’s younger brother’s son, Firuz Shah Tughlaq succeeded the throne in 1351 A.D. He was 45 years old and ruled for 37 years.  

What were the Administrative Reforms under Firuz Shah Tughlaq?

  • All agricultural loans granted by Muhammad bin Tughlaq were withdrawn by Firuz Shah Tughlaq.
  • The revenue officials’ pay was increased.
  • All unjust and unlawful taxation came to an end.
  • There were 4 important taxes that were collected by him, they were:
  • Jizya which was the Poll tax
  • Khams which was 1/5th of the war plunder 
  • Kharaj was 1/10th of the produce of the land
  • Zakat was a tax on Muslims for religious purposes
  • Firuz Shah Tughlaq ordered the construction of irrigation canals, bridges, wells and dams all throughout his area. 
  •  Hissar, Jaunput, Fatehabad and Firozabad were constructed by him.
  • Torture and damage of any kind was banned by Firuz Shah Tughlaq.
  • Jizya taxation was for the Brahmins too.
  • Firuz Shah Tughlaq also founded employment bureaus, marriage bureaus(Diwani-kherat) and hospitals(Dar-ul-shafa) during his reign. 
  • To give financial aid to the poor, Diwani-Istibqaq was established. 

Also Read: Emperor Akbar: History, Life, Achievements

What were the Foreign Policies of Firuz Shah Tughlaq?

  • In 1353 A.D. and 1359 A.D. he suuronded Bengal. 
  • Jainagar was seized by Firuz Shah Tughlaq.
  • The Jagannath Temple at Puri was destroyed by him. 

Why was Firuz Shah Tughlaq Important in Medieval Indian History?

Firuz Shah Tughlaq was a prominent and important ruler due to the following reasons:

  • The people loved him and his governance.
  • His autobiography Futuhat-i-Firoz Shahi was well known. 
  • Zia-ud-din Barani was patronised by him. 
  • Translations to Persian from Sanskrit of numerous books on science, arts and medicine were done during his time.
the tomb of Firuz Shah Tughlaq.

Why did the Tughlaq Dynasty End?

The end was looming as the successors were incompetent and weak. As most of the territories by the end of the 14th century became independent the Tughlaqs only ruled over Delhi and Punjab. The Invasion of Timur happened during the Tughlaq Dynasty which became one of the reasons for the downfall of the dynasty.

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Who is the founder of the Tughlaq dynasty?

The founder of the Tughlaq Dynasty was Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq. In 1312 the Tughlaq Dynasty began and ended after 101 years in 1413.

What is Tughlaq known for?

The Tughlaq dynasty is known for its architecture. The fortress of Feroz Shah Kotla reused an old Buddhist pillar, the Delhi-Topra pillar which was pitched by Ashoka in the 3rd century BCE.

How long did the Tughlaq dynasty last?

The Tughlaq dynasty lasted for 101 years from 1312 A.D. to 1413 A.D.  

What were the 4 taxes of Firoz Shah Tughlaq?

The four taxes of Firoz Shah Tughlaq were Jizya which was the Poll tax, the Khams which was 1/5th of the war plunder, the Kharaj was 1/10th of the produce of the land and the Zakat was a tax on Muslims for religious purposes.

Who was the greatest sultan of the Tughlaq dynasty?

The greatest sultan of the Tughlaq dynasty was Firuz Shah Tughlaq as the people of his region loved his governance and policies. 

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