The full form of ARP is Address Resolution Protocol. It refers to the communication protocol that is utilized in computer networks to associate the IP address on the physical MAC (Media Access Protocol) address of a device. It helps the device to find other devices and enable communication with each other on the same local network like Wi-Fi or Ethernet by resolving IP addresses to MAC addresses.
Thus, Address Resolution Protocol is the procedure which is responsible for connecting the dynamic IP address to a fixed MAC which is a static physical machine address, in a LAN.
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ARP: Full Form
As you are now familiar with the full form of ARP, let’s understand what ARP is. When a device wants to send any message or data to another device on the same network, then takes the help of ARP to identify the MAC address analogous to the IP address.
In any case, if the MAC address is unable to be traced, then ARP comes into play. At this point the device instead of sending the request to the MAC address, sends an ARP request and the device with the matching IP address responds with its MAC address.
Once the requesting device catches mapping, then it will use it for further communications in future. This would avoid the need for constant ARP requests.
The ARP is the important protocol for legitimate functioning of LAN. ARP is used extensively in the TCP/IP networking suite.
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Function of ARP
In the world of computer networking the communication between two or more devices takes place through IP addresses. In this context let’s look at the function of ARP:
- ARP request is sent by a system to the entire LAN asking for a relevant IP address. The request contains the source of the requesting system’s IP address and the MAC address.
- Then, the system which has received an ARP request recognizes the sender’s IP address and responds back with an ARP reply packet which contains its IP address.
- On receiving an ARP reply the system stores its IP address to MAC mapping in its ARP cache. This would eventually eradicate the need to send ARP requests again and again for future communication. Thus, this protocol speeds up the future communication.
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