NCERT Solutions History Chapter 8 “The Making of the National Movement: 1870-1947” Class 8 (Free PDF)

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NCERT Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 8 “The Making of the National Movement 1870s-1947” (Free PDF)

NCERT Solutions History Chapter 8 “The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947” Class 8 aims to provide students with insightful solutions. Our subject matter experts have offered simple and accurate answers for the exercises in the history book “Our Pasts-III.” 

NCERT Solutions History Chapter 8 “The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947” Class 8 are designed in an easy-to-understand manner to help students grasp the topics easily. Students can use these varieties of  NCERT solutions and learn more about these interesting topics comprehensively. 

We hope that the History Chapter 8 “The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947” Class 8 will be helpful for the students. 

Check Out NCERT Solutions Class 8 History of Other Chapters 

Chapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4
Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8

Important Questions and Answers of NCERT Solutions History Chapter 8 “The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947” Class 8 (Free PDF)

Let us look at History Chapter 8 “The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947” Class 8 within the lesson. Our subject experts have answered these questions accurately and as per the latest guidelines of CBSE.

Question 1. What were the key objectives and methods of the Indian National Congress in its initial years?
Answer: The Indian National Congress initially aimed for greater representation of Indians in the government and administration, advocating for legislative councils’ reform, civil service examinations in India, and separation of the judiciary from the executive. They also raised economic issues such as reduction of land revenue, a cut in military expenditure, and more funds for irrigation.

Question 2. How did the nationalist movements evolve from moderate approaches to more radical methods in the late 19th and early 20th centuries?
Answer: Nationalist movements shifted from moderate to radical approaches, with leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak advocating for “swaraj” or self-rule and promoting mass mobilization. The partition of Bengal in 1905 and the subsequent Swadeshi Movement marked a turning point towards more assertive methods.

Question 3. Discuss Mahatma Gandhi’s role in the Indian freedom struggle, focusing on his principles of nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience.
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi emerged as a pivotal figure, promoting nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience. His leadership during movements like the Rowlatt Satyagraha and the Non-Cooperation Movement mobilized masses and challenged British authority.

4. What were the major events and outcomes of the Rowlatt Satyagraha and the Non-Cooperation Movement led by Mahatma Gandhi?
Answer:  The Rowlatt Satyagraha protested against the oppressive Rowlatt Act, leading to demonstrations and the infamous Jallianwala Bagh massacre. The Non-Cooperation Movement urged Indians to boycott British institutions and goods, causing significant disruption and promoting self-reliance.

Question 5. Explain the significance of the Khilafat Movement and its alliance with the Indian National Congress. How did it impact the Indian freedom struggle?
Answer: The Khilafat Movement, demanding protection for the Ottoman Caliphate, allied with the Congress to oppose British policies. This alliance aimed to unite Hindus and Muslims against colonial rule but ultimately faced challenges due to differing objectives.

6. Describe Mahatma Gandhi’s Salt March and its impact on the Civil Disobedience Movement. How did it contribute to the Indian independence movement?
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi’s Salt March defied the salt tax imposed by the British, sparking widespread civil disobedience and symbolizing resistance to colonial oppression. It galvanized support and paved the way for further mass movements.

7. Analyze the factors leading to the demand for Pakistan and the subsequent partition of India in 1947.
Answer:  The demand for Pakistan arose from the Muslim League’s perception of Muslims as a separate nation and concerns about representation in a united India. The failure of negotiations and communal tensions led to the partition of India in 1947.

8. What were the consequences of the partition of India, particularly in terms of communal violence and mass displacement?
Answer:  Partition resulted in widespread communal violence, mass displacement, and loss of lives. Millions were uprooted from their homes, leading to one of the largest migrations in history and leaving a lasting impact on regional demographics and social cohesion.

9. How did the failure of negotiations between the Congress, the Muslim League, and the British lead to the declaration of “Direct Action Day” and further communal violence?
Answer: The failure of negotiations led to “Direct Action Day” called by the Muslim League, triggering communal riots and violence, particularly in Calcutta and other parts of northern India. The ensuing chaos intensified the call for partition.

10. Reflect on the legacy of India’s struggle for independence, considering its impact on national identity, political development, and socio-cultural dynamics.
Answer:  India’s struggle for independence left a profound legacy, shaping national identity, political structures, and social dynamics. It demonstrated the power of nonviolent resistance and solidarity, while also highlighting the challenges of communalism and the complexities of nation-building in a diverse society.

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Let´s recall 

1. Why were people dissatisfied with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s?
Answer: People were dissatisfied with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s due to various reasons, including the imposition of new laws regulating personal matters, restrictions on freedom of expression, and economic exploitation leading to poverty and famines.

2. Who did the Indian National Congress wish to speak for?
Answer: The Indian National Congress aimed to speak for all Indians, irrespective of class, caste, religion, or region, advocating for their collective rights and aspirations within the framework of self-rule.

3. What economic impact did the First World War have on India?Answer: The First World War led to a significant increase in defense expenditure by the British, resulting in higher taxes on Indian individuals and businesses. The war also caused a surge in prices due to increased demand for war supplies, exacerbating the economic difficulties faced by the common people.

4. What did the Muslim League resolution of 1940 ask for?
Answer:  The Muslim League resolution of 1940 demanded “Independent States” for Muslims in the northwestern and eastern regions of the Indian subcontinent, reflecting the growing desire for autonomy and self-governance among Muslim communities.

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Let´s Discuss 

5. Who were the Moderates? How did they propose to struggle against British rule?
Answer: The Moderates were leaders within the Indian National Congress who advocated for gradual reforms and constitutional methods to achieve self-rule. They proposed struggling against British rule through petitions, resolutions, and negotiations, aiming to gain greater representation and autonomy within the existing colonial framework.

6. How was the politics of the Radicals within the Congress different from that of the Moderates? 
Answer: The Radicals within the Congress, led by figures like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, adopted more assertive and confrontational tactics compared to the Moderates. They emphasized mass mobilization, direct action, and non-cooperation as means to challenge British authority, advocating for more radical reforms and complete independence.

7. Discuss the various forms that the Non-Cooperation Movement took in different parts of India. How did the people understand Gandhiji? 
Answer: The Non-Cooperation Movement took various forms across India, including boycotts of British goods, non-payment of taxes, withdrawal from government institutions, and peaceful protests. People understood Gandhiji’s call for non-cooperation as a means to assert their rights, challenge unjust laws, and participate actively in the struggle for independence.

8. Why did Gandhiji choose to break the salt law? 
Answer: Gandhiji chose to break the salt law as a symbolic act of defiance against British colonial rule. The salt tax imposed by the British government was seen as unjust and oppressive, affecting the common people’s access to an essential commodity. By breaking the law and producing salt from seawater, Gandhiji aimed to mobilize mass support and highlight the broader grievances against British rule.

9. Discuss those developments of the 1937-47 period that led to the creation of Pakistan.
Answer: Developments such as the demand for Pakistan by the Muslim League, communal tensions, the failure of negotiations between the Congress and the British, and the outbreak of communal violence during Direct Action Day in 1946 contributed to the creation of Pakistan. These developments underscored the challenges of accommodating diverse interests and identities within a unified Indian nation, ultimately leading to the partition of India along religious lines.

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Breakdown of NCERT Solutions History Chapter 8 “The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947” Class 8 

The chapter ¨The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947¨,  discusses the evolution of India’s struggle for independence from British colonial rule, highlighting key events, leaders, and movements from the late 19th century to the mid-20th century.

Early Nationalist Movements: The chapter begins by detailing early nationalist movements led by figures like Rammohun Roy, Dayanand Saraswati, and others who challenged British rule and social injustices.  

Formation of Indian National Congress: It traces the establishment of the Indian National Congress in the late 19th century, initially advocating for greater representation and reforms within the British administration.

Shift Towards Radicalism: As discontent with British rule grew, leaders like Tilak and Pal advocated for more radical methods, criticizing moderate approaches and emphasizing self-reliance and constructive work.

Emergence of Gandhi: Mahatma Gandhi emerged as a prominent leader, promoting nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience as a means to challenge British authority.

Rowlatt Satyagraha and Non-Cooperation Movement: Gandhi leads movements like the Rowlatt Satyagraha and Non-Cooperation Movement, mobilizing people across India against oppressive British laws and policies.

Khilafat Movement: Gandhi supports the Khilafat Movement, aligning with Muslim leaders to protest British actions against the Ottoman Empire, showcasing efforts to bridge communal divides.

Salt March and Civil Disobedience: Gandhi’s Salt March and subsequent Civil Disobedience Movement further galvanize mass resistance against British rule, leading to widespread protests and arrests.

Rise of Muslim League and Demand for Pakistan: The Muslim League’s demand for separate Muslim states gains traction, fueled by perceptions of Hindu dominance within the Congress and British failures to address Muslim concerns.

Partition and Independence: Failed negotiations between Congress, the League, and the British, along with communal violence, culminated in the partition of India in 1947, leading to independence but also widespread suffering and displacement.

Legacy: The chapter concludes by reflecting on the enduring impact of India’s struggle for independence, highlighting the sacrifices made by leaders and ordinary people alike in the pursuit of freedom and self-determination.

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