NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Forest Society and Colonialism Social Science Chapter 4 (Free PDF) 

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NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Forest Society and Colonialism Social Science Chapter 4 (Free PDF)

NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History ¨Forest Society and Colonialism¨ Social Science Chapter 4 aims to provide students with insightful solutions. Our subject matter experts have offered simple and accurate answers for the exercises in the history book ¨India and the Contemporary World-I.¨

NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Forest Society and Colonialism, Social Science Chapter 4 are designed in an easy-to-understand manner to help students grasp the topics easily. Students can use these varieties of  NCERT solutions and learn more about these interesting topics comprehensively. 

We hope that the History Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism Class 9 will be helpful for the students. 

Check Out NCERT Solutions Class 9 History of Other Chapters 

Chapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5

Important Questions and Answers of NCERT Solutions For Class 9 History Forest Society and Colonialism Social Science Chapter 4  (Free PDF)

Let us look at History Chapter 4 ¨Forest Society and Colonialism¨ within the lesson. Our subject experts have answered these questions accurately and per the latest CBSE guidelines.

1. What is deforestation, and when did it become a significant issue?
Answer: Deforestation is the disappearance of forests. It started many centuries ago but became more serious under colonial rule.

2. How did colonial policies contribute to deforestation?
Answer: Colonial policies encouraged the clearing of forests for agricultural expansion, especially for cash crops like jute, sugar, wheat, and cotton.

3. What role did railway development play in deforestation?
Answer: The expansion of railways, crucial for colonial trade, led to widespread deforestation, particularly in regions like India.

4. Why were large areas of forests cleared during the colonial era?
Answer: Forests were cleared to make way for plantations of commodities like tea, coffee, and rubber to meet the growing demand in Europe.

5. Who introduced scientific forestry, and why?
Answer: Scientific forestry was introduced by colonial authorities, led by experts like Dietrich Brandis, to manage forests more efficiently and conserve resources.

6. How were local communities affected by forest laws under colonial rule?
Answer: Forest laws imposed hardships on villagers, leading to conflicts, theft, and bribery for accessing forest resources.

7. What traditional agricultural practice was banned under colonial rule, and why?Answer: Shifting cultivation, where parts of forests were cleared and burned for farming, was banned due to concerns about its impact on forests and tax calculations.

8. Why were hunting restrictions imposed in forest areas?
Answer: Hunting restrictions were imposed to protect wildlife and prevent overhunting, although it affected communities reliant on hunting for food and cultural practices.

9. How did colonial trade regulations impact local economies?
Answer: European trading firms were given exclusive rights to trade forest products, limiting local economic opportunities in forest-dependent regions.

10. What led to resistance and rebellion against colonial forest policies?
Answer: Forest-dependent communities rebelled against colonial forest policies due to hardships and loss of livelihoods, leading to movements and suppression by colonial authorities.

Also Read: NCERT Solutions Class 8 Geography Chapter 2 ‘Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources’ (Free PDF) 


1. Discuss how the changes in forest management in the colonial period affected the following groups of people:
Shifting cultivators
Nomadic and pastoralist communities
Firms trading in timber/forest produce
Plantation owners
Kings/British officials engaged in shikar (hunting)

Answer. Impact of Colonial Forest Management on Different Groups:

Shifting cultivators: The British banned shifting cultivation, a traditional practice crucial for their survival. This forced them to find new ways to make a living, often leading to poverty and hardship.
Nomadic and pastoralist communities: Colonial forest laws restricted grazing lands, impacting their ability to raise livestock. Additionally, some nomadic communities were labelled as criminals for their traditional way of life.
Firms trading in timber/forest produce: The rise of commercial forestry created opportunities for timber companies that received contracts to supply wood for railways and other projects.Plantation owners: The British encouraged cash crop plantations like tea and coffee. This benefited plantation owners, who gained access to large tracts of cleared forest land.
Kings/British officials engaged in shikar (hunting): While forest laws restricted hunting for local people, some areas were designated as hunting grounds for royalty and colonial officials, allowing them to continue hunting big game.

2. What are the similarities between colonial management of the forests in Bastarand in Java?
Answer. The similarities between colonial management of the forests in Bastarand and Java are as follows:
Forest Reservation: Both the British in Bastar and the Dutch in Java restricted access to forests by declaring large areas as reserved forests.
Restrictions on Local Use: Villagers in both regions faced limitations on collecting resources like firewood, fodder, and other forest products.
Labor Systems: Both colonial powers implemented systems where villagers were forced to provide free or cheap labor for forestry activities. (Dutch: blandongdiensten system)

3. Between 1880 and 1920, forest cover in the Indian subcontinent declined by 9.7million hectares, from 108.6 million hectares to 98.9 million hectares. Discuss the role of the following factors in this decline:
Agricultural expansion
Commercial farmingTea/Coffee plantations

Answer. The roles of the factors in the decline are discussed below:

Railways: Building a vast railway network required a massive amount of timber for sleepers (tracks). This led to extensive deforestation near railway lines.

Shipbuilding: The demand for wood for shipbuilding also contributed to deforestation, although its impact was likely smaller than that of railways.

Agricultural Expansion: As the population grew, more forests were cleared to create new farmland to meet food demands.Commercial Farming: The British encouraged the production of cash crops like cotton and jute, leading to large-scale deforestation for plantations.

Tea/Coffee plantations: Establishing tea and coffee plantations required clearing significant forest areas.Adivasis and Other Peasant Users: While some deforestation resulted from traditional practices, it was likely dwarfed by the impact of commercial activities listed above.

4. Why are forests affected by wars?
Answer. The British restrictions on forest use sparked rebellions by Adivasi communities, which depended heavily on these resources for their survival. Some prominent leaders of these rebellions include:

– Siddhu and Kanu in the Santhal Parganas
– Birsa Munda of Chhotanagpur
– Alluri Sitarama Raju of Andhra Pradesh

These rebellions highlighted the disconnect between colonial policies and the needs of the local people who had a long history of sustainable forest use.

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