NCERT Class 8 Geography Industries Chapter 4 Notes (Free PDF)

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NCERT Class 8 Geography Industries Chapter 4 Notes

Join us in the dynamic world of manufacturing, industry, and industrial systems from the NCERT Class 8 Geography Industries Chapter 4. Here we will discuss and uncover the iron and steel industry to the textile and information technology sectors. With a focus on active learning and simple explanations, get ready with our expert writers to unlock the secrets of industrial success and ignite your curiosity. 

Download NCERT Class 8 Geography ¨Industries¨ Chapter 4 (Notes PDF)
Download NCERT Solutions For Class 8 Geography ¨Industries¨ Chapter 4¨ (Free PDF)
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Introduction to NCERT Class 8 Geography Industries Chapter 4

Welcome to the interesting world of industries as explored in Class 8 Geography Industries Chapter 4. In this chapter, we will delve into the fascinating kingdom of industrialisation, exploring how raw materials are transformed into valuable products, the different types of industries, and the factors influencing their location. Join us on a journey to understand the significance of industries in our daily lives and their impact on global development. 


Have you ever wondered about the journey of the notebook you use every day? From its origins as part of a tree to its final form in your hands, each step involves a fascinating process of manufacturing. Let’s explore how raw materials are transformed into products of greater value through secondary activities or manufacturing.

The notebook begins its life as part of a tree:
РThe tree is cut down and transported to a pulp mill. 
– At the mill, the wood is processed into wood pulp.

Paper Production:  
РWood pulp is mixed with chemicals to create paper.  
– Machines transform the pulp into paper sheets.

Printing Process: 
– The paper is sent to a press, where lines are printed using chemical ink.

Notebook Assembly:
РPrinted pages are bound together to form a notebook.  
– The notebooks are packaged and sent to the market for sale.

Value Addition in Manufacturing:
РSecondary activities add value to raw materials.  
– Paper and notebooks are examples of value-added products.

Industry and Economic Activity:
– Industry encompasses the production of goods, the extraction of minerals, and the provision of services.
– Examples include the iron and steel industry, the coal mining industry, and the tourism industry.

Also Read: NCERT Solutions and Notes for Class 7 Geography Chapter 1: Environment (Free PDF)

Classification of Industries

Industries can be classified based on raw materials, size and ownership. 

Raw Materials and Industries:
Agro-based Industries:
РUse plant and animal-based products.  
– Examples: food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy products, and leather industries.

Mineral-based Industries:
РPrimary industries using mineral ores.  
РProducts feed other industries.  
– Example: iron made from iron ore, used in heavy machinery, building materials, and railway coaches.

Marine-based Industries:
РUtilise products from the sea and oceans.  
– Examples: seafood processing, fish oil manufacturing.

Forest-based Industries:
РUtilise forest produce.  
– Examples: pulp and paper, pharmaceuticals, furniture, and building materials.

Size Classification of Industries:
Definition of Industry Size: Refers to the capital invested, number of employees, and production volume.

Small Scale Industries:
РUse less capital and technology.  
РCottage or household industries fall under this category.  
РProducts are often handmade by artisans.  
РExamples: basket weaving, pottery, handicrafts.  
– Generally, produce smaller volumes of products.

Large Scale Industries:
РRequire higher capital investment and advanced technology.  
РProduce large volumes of products.  
– Examples: silk weaving, and food processing on a larger scale.

Classification of Industries by Ownership:
Private Sector Industries:
РOwned and operated by individuals or groups of individuals.  
– Examples: privately-owned factories, businesses.

Public Sector Industries:
РOwned and operated by the government.  
– Examples: Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Steel Authority of India Limited.

Joint Sector Industries:
РOwned and operated by both the state and individuals or groups of individuals.  
– Example: Maruti Udyog Limited.

Cooperative Sector Industries:
РOwned and operated by producers, suppliers of raw materials, workers, or a combination.  
– Examples: Anand Milk Union Limited, Sudha Dairy.

Factors Affecting Location of Industries

Important factors that affect the industries can be classified into different categories:

Availability of Raw Materials: Industries located where raw materials are abundant.

Land, Water, and Labour: Access to land, water sources, and skilled labour influences location decisions.

Power and Capital: Availability of power supply and financial resources impact industry location.

Transport and Market: Proximity to transportation networks and markets affects location choices.

Government Incentives and Industrial Location:
– Incentives for Backward Areas
– Governments offer subsidies, reduced transport costs, and infrastructure development to attract industries to less developed regions.

Impact of Industrialization:
– Development of Towns and Cities.
– Industrialization contributes to the growth and development of urban areas as industries create job opportunities and attract population influx.

Industrial System 

Find the Industrial System Overview from below:

Inputs: Raw materials, labour, and costs of land, transport, power, and infrastructure.  

Processes: Activities converting raw materials into finished products.  

Outputs: End products and income generated.  
Example: Textile Industry

Inputs: Cotton, human labour, factory, and transport costs.

Processes: Ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, and printing.

Output: The shirt you wear.

Industrial Regions

Formation of Industrial Regions:

Proximity Benefits: Industrial regions form when multiple industries locate nearby, sharing advantages.

Major Industrial Regions:
– Eastern North America: Known for its dense industrial activity.

Western and Central Europe: Prominent industrial area with advanced infrastructure.

Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia: Significant industrial hubs with growing economies.

Factors Influencing Location:
Temperate Climate: Industrial regions are often found in temperate areas.

Proximity to Seaports: Access to sea ports facilitates transportation.

Near Coal Fields: Availability of coal influences industrial location due to energy needs.

Industrial Regions in India:
– Mumbai-Pune Cluster
– Bangalore-Tamil Nadu Region
– Hugli Region
– Ahmedabad-Baroda Region
– Chota Nagpur Industrial Belt
– Vishakhapatnam-Guntur Belt
– Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut Region
– Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram Industrial Cluster

These regions contribute significantly to India’s industrial landscape, fostering economic growth and development.

Distribution of Major Industries

Major Industries Worldwide

Iron and Steel Industry:  
РEstablished industry with a long history.  
– Found in Germany, USA, China, Japan, and Russia.

Textile Industry:  
РTraditional industry with historical significance.  
– Concentrated in India, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan.

Information Technology Industry:  
РEmerging sector driving technological advancement.  
– Major hubs include Silicon Valley in Central California and the Bangalore region of India.

Iron and Steel Industry

1. The iron and steel industry is crucial for modern civilization, undergoing a complex transformation process from raw materials to valuable products.

2. This feeder industry relies on inputs such as iron ore, coal, limestone, labour, and capital for production.

3. The process involves stages like smelting and refining to convert raw materials into steel.

4. Steel, known for its toughness and versatility, forms the core of various products, from vehicles to household items.

5. Historically, the industry’s location shifted from resource-rich areas to coastal regions, aligning with the growth of large-scale operations.

6. In India, steel centres like Jamshedpur and Visakhapatnam capitalise on local resources and favourable market conditions.

7. The iron and steel industry, often dubbed the backbone of modern civilization, undergoes a complex process of transformation from raw materials to valuable products. This feeder industry utilises inputs like iron ore, coal, and limestone, along with labour and capital, to produce steel through stages like smelting and refining. 

8. Steel, known for its toughness and versatility, forms the core of various products, from vehicles to household items. Historically, the industry’s location shifted from resource-rich areas to coastal regions, aligning with the growth of large-scale operations.¬†

9. In India, steel centres like Jamshedpur and Visakhapatnam capitalise on local resources and favourable market conditions.l


Evolution of the Iron and Steel Industry in India: 

Pre-Independence Era:
– Only one iron and steel plant existed: Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited (TISCO), privately owned.
– Established in 1907 at Sakchi, later renamed Jamshedpur.

Post-Independence Initiatives: The government established several iron and steel plants after independence.

TISCO Origins and Location: Foundation: Started in 1907 at Sakchi, Jharkhand.
Geographical Advantage:

РConveniently situated near the confluence of the Subarnarekha and Kharkai rivers.  
РProximity to Bengal-Nagpur railway line (32 km from Kalimati station).  
– Access to iron ore, coal, manganese deposits, and Kolkata market.

Raw Material and Infrastructure:
Resource Procurement: Coal from Jharia coalfields, iron ore, limestone, dolomite, and manganese from Odisha and Chhattisgarh.

Water Supply: Kharkai and Subarnarekha rivers ensured sufficient water supply.

Government Support: Government initiatives provided capital for development.

Industrial Expansion in Jamshedpur:
– Diversification: Other industrial plants established post-TISCO, producing chemicals, locomotive parts, agricultural equipment, etc.

Impact on Indian Industrialization:
Catalyst for Development: The iron and steel industry’s growth spurred rapid industrial development in India.

Integral to Infrastructure: Most sectors rely on the iron and steel industry for basic infrastructure needs.

Indian Iron and Steel Industry:
Composition: Large integrated steel plants, mini steel mills, secondary producers, rolling mills, and ancillary industries.

Pittsburgh:  An Industrial Hub in the United States

Significance of Pittsburgh: Key steel city in the United States with strategic locational advantages.

Locational Advantages: 
Availability of Raw Materials: Local availability of coal, while iron ore sourced from Minnesota, 1500 km away.
Transportation Routes:  
РGreat Lakes waterway provides an efficient shipping route for iron ore.  
– Trains transport ore from Great Lakes to Pittsburgh.
Water Supply: Ohio, Monongahela, and Allegheny rivers ensure sufficient water supply.

Distribution of Steel Mills:
Geographical Distribution:
– Large steel mills not concentrated in Pittsburgh itself.
– Located in valleys of Monongahela and Allegheny rivers above Pittsburgh, and along the Ohio River below it.

Transportation of Finished Steel: Finished steel is transported to market via land and water routes.
Diversification of Industries: The Pittsburgh area hosts various factories using steel as raw material.  
– Production includes railroad equipment, heavy machinery, and rails.

Also Read: NCERT Solutions and Notes for Class 7 Geography Chapter 2: Inside Our Earth (Free PDF)

10 Important Notes for the NCERT Class 8 Geography Industries Chapter 4 

Here are the descriptions of the important events from NCERT Class 8 Geography Industries Chapter 4:

1. Industry Definition: Industry includes activities involved in producing goods, extracting minerals, or providing services essential for economic development.

2. Factors Influencing Location: Location of industries is influenced by factors like raw material availability, labour supply, water sources, transport access, and market proximity.

3. Industrial System Components: An industrial system comprises inputs (raw materials, labour), processes (converting raw materials into products), and outputs (finished goods, income).

4. Major Industrial Regions: Prominent industrial regions include Eastern North America, Western and Central Europe, Eastern Europe, and Eastern Asia.

5. Types of Industries: Industries can be categorised into agro-based, mineral-based, public sector, joint sector, and cooperative sector based on ownership and raw material usage.

6. Raw Materials: Industries rely on various raw materials like iron ore, coal, cotton, petroleum, and agricultural products for production.

7. End Products: Industries produce a wide range of end products including automobiles, textiles, processed foods, machinery, and construction materials.

8. Iron and Steel Industry: The iron and steel industry is often referred to as the backbone of modern industry due to its role in infrastructure, transportation, and machinery production.

9. Indian Iron and Steel Industry: India’s iron and steel industry has developed significantly, contributing to economic growth and infrastructure development.

10. Industrialization Impact: Industrialization leads to rapid urbanisation, technological advancements, and economic growth, transforming societies and lifestyles.

Also Read: NCERT Solutions and Notes for Class 7 Geography Chapter 3: Our Changing Earth (Free PDF)


Q.1: What is industry in Geography Class 8 Geography Industries Chapter 4?

Ans: In Class 8 Geography, industry refers to the sector of the economy concerned with the production of goods and services through manufacturing, processing, and other activities.

Q.2: What is industrial disaster Class 8 Geography Industries Chapter 4?

Ans: An industrial disaster, as discussed in Class 8 Geography, refers to a catastrophic event that occurs within an industrial setting, leading to significant damage, loss of life, or environmental harm. Examples include chemical spills, explosions, and structural collapses.

Q.3: What are types of industry?

Ans: Types of industries, as taught in Class 8 Geography chapter, include primary industries involved in raw material extraction (like mining and agriculture), secondary industries engaged in manufacturing (such as automobile production and textile manufacturing), and tertiary industries providing services (like healthcare and tourism)

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