NCERT Class 7 Science Chapter 8 Reproduction in Plants: Notes, Solutions, Free PDF

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NCERT Class 7 Science Chapter 8: Reproduction in Plants

NCERT Class 7 Science Chapter 8 teaches us about reproduction and the modes of reproduction in plants. When learning about these, we get to discover the vegetative and reproductive parts of a plant. Additionally, we learn about seed dispersal and its advantages for flora and the planet Earth. Thus, to help you understand all new concepts and revise the learnings of CBSE Class 7 Science Chapter 1 on Nutrition in Plants we have created notes on “Reproduction in Plants”. Moreover, our subject experts have also answered all writing questions in this chapter. 

Download NCERT Solutions Class 7 Science Chapter 8 Important Questions and Answers PDF

Also Read: Different Types of Plants: By Life Cycle, Seeds & Size

Modes of Reproduction

Before learning about the different modes of reproduction as mentioned in the NCERT Class 7 Science Chapter 8, let us learn about the reproduction and reproductive parts of a plant. 

  • Reproduction: The process of production or creation of new living organisms from parents is known as reproduction.
  • Vegetative Parts: Parts such as roots, leaves, and stems are known as the vegetative parts of a plant.
  • Reproductive Parts: Parts of a plant that are involved in the production of new seeds, fruit, plant, etc are called reproductive parts of a plant. Flowers are the reproductive parts of a flowering plant. 
  • Modes of Reproduction: Plants produce offspring through two ways: Sexual Reproduction and Asexual Reproduction.

Asexual Reproduction 

In this mode of reproduction, plants give birth to new plants without seeds. Asexual reproduction requires a single parent.

Sexual Reproduction

When new plants are produced through seeds, it is called sexual reproduction. This reproduction mode requires a male as well as a female parent. 

Revise: NCERT Class 6 Science Chapter 4 Notes: Getting to Know Plants

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Asexual Reproduction

Now, let us learn about different types of asexual reproduction. 

Vegetative Propagation

Vegetative propagation is a way plants make new plants without using seeds. They do this by using parts like roots, stems, leaves or buds to grow new plants. Plants that come from vegetative propagation grow faster and start making flowers and fruits sooner compared to plants that grow from seeds. These new plants are just like their parent because they come from only one parent plant, making them identical copies.

Here are some examples of vegetative propagation as mentioned in NCERT Class 7 Science Chapter 8 Reproduction in Plants:

  • Rose plant: You can grow a rose plant from “nodes”, which is the branch on which leaves grow. To grow a rose plant you need to “cut” a branch from a rose plant and stick it into the soil in a pot. Now, if you need to water the node regularly, you will see that it will start to grow. 
  • Money Plant: Just like a rose plant, you can try the same thing with a money plant. However, instead of soil, put the “cutting” in a jar of water and see a new plant grow. 
  • Potato: We can grow potatoes with their “eyes”, which are the scars on this vegetable. The eyes of a potato are vegetative buds of the vegetable. When we cut the eyes of a potato, bury it in the soil and water it regularly then we will observe a new potato plant in a few days. 
  • Ginger and Turmeric: Both these vegetables also have “eyes”. We can grow them like potatoes. 
  • Bryophyllum or Sprout Leaf Plant: These have “vegetative buds” on the margins of their leaves. If we bury leaves of Bryophyllum in moist soil, each bud will produce a new sprout leaf plant. 
  • Sweet Potato: We can grow sweet potatoes with their “roots”.
  • Cactus: Each detached part of a cactus gives rise to a new plant. 

Budding

Take yeast, mix it with water and sugar, and let it sit in a warm place for an hour. Now, place a drop of the liquid on a glass slide and observe it under a microscope. You may see the formation of new yeast through small bulb-like projections.

This bulb-like projection in the yeast cell is called a “bud.” This bud slowly grows, separates from the parent cell, and becomes a new yeast cell. This new cell grows, matures, and makes even more yeast cells. This entire process is called “budding”.

Fragmentation

The process by which algae breaks up into two or more parts owing to the availability of water and nutrients is known as “fragmentation”. 

Spore Formation

Spores are like special bodies for asexual reproduction. They have a tough outer layer that can survive tough conditions like heat and dryness. Their outer layer allows them to survive for a while. When the conditions are right, a spore starts to grow into a new individual. This process of reproduction via spores is called “Spore Formation.”

Some plants, like moss and ferns, use spores for reproduction.

Also Check out: Class 11 Photosynthesis in Higher Plants NCERT, Notes

Sexual Reproduction

Furthermore, in the NCERT Class 7 Science Chapter 8 we will learn about sexual reproduction in plants. But, before that let’s have a look at the reproductive parts and resulting parts present and formed in the flower of a plant, respectively:

  • Stamens: Male reproductive part in a flower. A stamen has two parts- an “Anther” and a “Filament.”  The anther consists of pollen grains which produce “Male Gamets”. 
  • Pistil: Female reproductive part in a flower. A pistil has three parts- a “Stigma”, a “Style, and an “Ovary”. Further, the ovary consists of one or more “Ovules”. The female gamete, also known as the egg, develops within the ovule/s. 
  • Zygote: During sexual reproduction, a male and a female gamete combine to create a “Zygote”.
NCERT Class 7 Science Chapter 8 Reproduction in Plants: Parts of a Flower

Unisexual and Bisexual Flowers

  • Unisexual Flowers: Flowers having either stamens or pistils only are known as unisexual flowers. Unisexual flowers of both genders, male and female, can be found on the same plant or on separate plants. Examples: flowers in cucumber, papaya, and corn plants
  • Bisexual Flowers: Flowers having both stamens and pistils are called bisexual flowers. Examples: Flowers in petunia, mustard, and rose plants.

Pollination

Pollen grains are like tiny plant dust particles. They have a tough shell that keeps them safe. Sometimes, the wind or water can carry them from one flower to another. 

Pollination

Due to their lightweight nature, pollen grains can be transported by wind or water. Also, insects play a role in this process as they visit flowers and transport pollen on their bodies. Some of the pollen eventually comes into contact with the stigma of a flower of the same species. This transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of a flower is referred to as “Pollination.”

There are two types of pollination, which are as follows:

  • Self-Pollination: If the pollen lands on the stigma of the same flower or another flower on the same plant, we call it “self-pollination.” 
  • Cross-pollination: If the pollen from one flower lands on the stigma of a flower from a different plant of the same kind, that’s called “cross-pollination.” 
NCERT Class 7 Science Chapter 8 Reproduction in Plants: Pollination

Fertilisation

A cell is formed when the male and female gametes of a flower or two flowers fuse together to form a “zygote.” The process of combining the male and female gametes to create a zygote is known as “Fertilisation.”  Then, the zygote grows and becomes an “Embryo.”

NCERT Class 7 Science Chapter 8 Reproduction in Plants: Fertilisation

Fruits and Seed Formation

Now, NCERT Class 7 Science Chapter 8 explains the formation of fruits and seeds after fertilisation. Let us learn the process!!

After fertilisation, the ovary matures into a fruit. Whereas, the remaining flower parts wither and drop away. 

  • Fruit: The fruit is essentially the fully developed ovary. 
  • Seeds: Seeds form from the ovules within the ovary. Each seed contains an embryo which is safely enveloped by a protective seed coat.

Also Read: What is Botany? Meaning, Importance and Branches

Seed Dispersal

Plants around the world grow due to the scattering of seeds through wind, water, animals, or birds. This process is called “Seed Dispersal”.

Advantages of seed dispersal:

  • This process helps prevent the plant from having to compete with its own baby plants for sunlight, water, and nutrients.
  • Additionally, it allows the plants to spread into new areas. Thus, increasing their presence in different habitats.

Seeds Dispersed by Water

Some seeds, like the winged seeds of drumstick and maple, the lightweight seeds of grasses, the hairy seeds of aak (Madar), and the hairy fruits of sunflowers, are easily carried by the wind to distant locations.

Seeds Dispersed by Water

Some seeds or fruits often develop the ability to float, due to a spongy or fibrous outer covering. Example: coconuts.

Seeds Dispersed by Animals

Certain seeds rely on animals for dispersal, especially those with spiny hooks that can attach themselves to animal bodies and be transported to far-off locations. Examples of such seeds include those of Xanthium and Urena.

NCERT Class 7 Science Chapter 8 Reproduction in Plants: Seed Dispersal

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NCERT Solutions Class 7 Science Chapter 8: Reproduction in Plants

Now, let us solve Class 7 Science Chapter 8 questions. To help you excel, we have provided answers that adhere to the latest CBSE curriculum. 

Ques 1. Fill in the blanks:

a. Production of new individuals from the vegetative part of the parent is called______________.

b. A flower may have either male or female reproductive parts. Such a flower is called_____________.

c. The transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of the same or of another flower of the same kind is known as_____________________.

d. The fusion of male and female gametes is termed as_________________.

e. Seed dispersal takes place by means of_(1)______________, __(2)____________, and_(3)___________.

Ans:

a. Vegetative propagation

b. Unisexual flower

c. Pollination

d. Zygote

e. (1) Wind (2) Water (3) Animals

Ques 2. Describe the different methods of asexual reproduction. Give examples.

Ans: Here are the different methods of asexual reproduction:

a. Vegetative Propagation: The process of producing new plants through leaves, buds, stems, and roots of plants is known as vegetative propagation. 

Examples: Eyes of potatoes and stems of rose plants.

b. Budding: A tiny protrusion, known as a bud, gradually enlarges and separates from the parent cell to create a fresh yeast cell. This newly formed yeast cell undergoes growth, and maturation to generate more yeast cells. 

Examples: Yeast

c. Fragmentation: The process by which algae breaks up into two or more parts owing to the availability of water and nutrients is known as “fragmentation”. 

Examples: Algae

d. Spore Formation: Spores are like special bodies for asexual reproduction. They have a tough outer layer that can survive tough conditions like heat and dryness. Their outer layer allows them to survive for a while. When the conditions are right, a spore starts to grow into a new individual. This reproduction process via spores is called “Spore Formation.”

Examples: Ferns and mosses

Ques 3. Explain what you understand by sexual reproduction.


Ans: Sexual reproduction is a process in which male and female reproductive cells combine to give rise to a new organism.

Ques 4. State the main difference between asexual and sexual reproduction.

Ans: Here are the differences between asexual and sexual reproduction:

Asexual ReproductionSexual Reproduction
Requires a single parent.Requires a male as well as a female parent. 
No requirement for distinct reproductive organs.Requires dedicated reproductive organs. 
In asexual reproduction, plants give birth to new plants without seeds.In sexual reproduction, new plants are produced through seeds. 
Examples: Rose, Potato, Yeast, AlgaeExamples: Mustard, Cucumber, Gulmohar, Papaya

Ques 6. Explain the difference between self-pollination and cross-pollination.

Ans: Here is the key difference between self-pollination and cross-pollination:

Self-PollinationCross-Pollination
If the pollen lands on the stigma of the same flower or another flower on the same plant, we call it “self-pollination.” If the pollen from one flower lands on the stigma of a flower from a different plant of the same kind, that’s called “cross-pollination.” 

Ques 7. How does the process of fertilisation take place in flowers?

Ans: The cell that forms when the male and female gametes fuse together to form a “zygote.” The process of combining the male and female gametes to create a zygote is known as “Fertilisation.”  Then, the zygote grows and becomes an “Embryo.”

Ques 8. Describe the various ways by which seeds are dispersed.

Ans: Here are the different ways by which seeds are dispersed:

a. Wind: Some seeds, like the winged seeds of drumstick and maple, the lightweight seeds of grasses, the hairy seeds of aak (Madar), and the hairy fruits of sunflowers, are easily carried by the wind to distant locations.

b. Water: Some seeds or fruits often develop the ability to float, due to a spongy or fibrous outer covering. Example: coconuts.

c. Animals: Certain seeds rely on animals for dispersal, especially those with spiny hooks that can attach themselves to animal bodies and be transported to far-off locations. Examples of such seeds include those of Xanthium and Urena.

Ques 9. Match the following items in Column I with those in Column II:

Column IColumn II
a. Budi. Maple
b. Eyesii. Spirogyra
c. Fragmentationiii. Yeast
d. Wingsiv. Bread mould
e. Sporesv. Potato
vi. Rose

Ans:

Column IColumn II
a. Budiii. Yeast
b. Eyesv. Potato
c. Fragmentationii. Spirogyra
d. Wingsi. Maple
e. Sporesiv. Bread mould

Ques 10. Which of the following answers is correct:

a. The reproductive part of a plant is the

(i) Leaf

(ii) Stem

(iii) Root

(iv) Flower

b. The process of fusion of the male and the female gametes is called

(i) Fertilisation

(ii) Pollination

(iii) Reproduction

(iv) Seed formation

c. Mature ovary forms the

(i) Seed

(ii) Stamen

(iii) Pistil

(iv) Fruit

d. A spore producing organism is

(i) Rose

(ii) Bread mould

(iii) Potato

(iv) Ginger

e. “Bryophyllum” can reproduce by its

(i) Stem

(ii) Leaves

(iii) Roots

(iv) Flower

Ans: 

a. (iv) Flower

b. (i) Fertilisation

c. (iv) Fruit

d. (ii) Bread mould

e. (ii) Leaves

Also Read:

NCERT Class 7 Science Chapter 1 Nutrition in Plants: Notes, Solutions, Free PDF
NCERT Class 7 Science Chapter 2 Nutrition in Animals: Notes, Solutions, Free PDF
NCERT Class 7 Science Chapter 3 Heat: Notes, Solutions, Free PDF
NCERT Class 7 Science Chapter 4 Acids, Bases, and Salts: Notes, Solutions, Free PDF 
NCERT Class 7 Science Chapter 5 Physical and Chemical Changes: Notes, Solutions, Free PDF
NCERT Class 7 Science Chapter 6 Respiration in Organisms: Notes, Solutions, Free PDF
NCERT Class 7 Science Chapter 7 Transportation in Animals and Plants: Notes, Solutions, Free PDF

FAQs

Q1. What do you mean by reproduction?

Ans: The process of production or creation of new living organisms from parents is known as reproduction.

Q 2. What is a zygote?

Ans: The cell that forms when the male and female gametes of a flower or two flowers fuse together to form a “zygote.” 

Q3. What are the different parts of the pistil of a flower?

Ans: A pistil has three parts- a “Stigma”, a “Style, and an “Ovary”. Further, the ovary consists of one or more “Ovules”. The female gamete, also known as the egg, develops within the ovule/s. 

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