Essay on Indian Economy for Students in 100, 200 and 500 Words

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Essay on Indian Economy

Essay on Indian Economy: The Indian economy is a mixed economy, which is primarily driven by the agriculture and services sectors. The agriculture sector contributes to nearly 20% of India’s GDP. Whereas, the services sector accounts for nearly 50% of the country’s GDP. Furthermore, the manufacturing sector contributes to around 28% of India’s GDP. Globally, India is ranked 142nd and 125th in terms of per capita income and nominal GDP, as per the International Monetary Fund (IMF). 

Since independence, India has transformed from an agricultural country to a mixed economy due to liberalization in 1991. To read more about the Indian economy, keep reading the blog on sample essays about the same. 

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100 words Essay on Indian Economy

The Indian economy is dynamic and rapidly growing. Currently, the economy is characterised by various sectors. The key contributors to the country’s economic growth are the agriculture, services, and manufacturing sectors. However, this was not always the case. India was an agricultural economy when the British left India in 1947 after plundering the sub-continent from 1600 to 1947. 

After independence, India became a part of the global economy in 1991, when the central government adopted the Liberalisation, Privatisation, and Globalisation (LPG) policy. Since then, the Indian economy has expanded in the service and manufacturing sectors significantly. At present, the economy is driven by government initiatives like Make in India and Digital India. However, we have a long way to go. 

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200 words Essay on Indian Economy

Agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy and of rural livelihoods. It not only employs a majority of the Indian population but also provides raw materials to different industries. In recent years, advancements and innovations in the industrial sector through schemes like the National Manufacturing Policy (NMP), the Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme (TUFS), and Make in India have contributed to the growth of the Indian economy. 

Despite progress and innovations in farming practices and the industrial sector both these industries are facing losses. This is due to limitations in government policies and a lack of awareness among the people of India. Even today, the agricultural sector is affected by outdated farming methods, dependency on weather, and a lack of skilled workers. All these issues need to be addressed by government policies that help promote an environment-friendly agriculture system that is profitable in nature. This will help the Indian economy grow.

Also, investment in business, easy bureaucratic processes, skilled development programmes, and research and development initiatives, will help in creating favourable conditions for the growth of the Indian economy.

Thus, to uplift the Indian economy, it is necessary to maintain a mutually beneficial partnership between the government and the agriculture and manufacturing sectors. The agriculture sector can grow by overcoming the challenges in farming practices. Whereas, the industrial sector will expand due to strategic investments and progressive policies.

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500 words Essay on Indian Economy

Policies for the growth of the Indian economy aim at overcoming poverty, reducing wealth gaps, and optimising productivity. The main purpose of bridging the wealth gap between different sections of society is to improve the overall well-being of its population for sustainable economic development.   

1. Overcome of Poverty

As per the Niti Aayog report of July 17, 2023, there is a decrease in the population of people vulnerable to poverty. The percentage of decline is from 24.8 percent to 14.9 percent for four consecutive years, from 2015-2016 to 2019-2021. However, the government is implementing various policies such as the National Education Policy, 2020 (NEP), the National Health Policy, the National Employment Policy (NEP) and many more important programs and policies to decrease the numbers of percentage so that there can be boosted in education, healthcare, and employment opportunities can be raised. 

More educated people with good health will better contribute to the Indian economy. Moreover, creating jobs and small businesses will also lead to increased income levels help reduce poverty and encourage economic growth.

2. Reduction of Wealth Gaps

The second important factor in the rise of the Indian economy is reducing the gap between the poor and the rich. To address the wealth gap, various programmes and schemes, such as the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) and the Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojna (PMJDY), are implemented. Furthermore, to support business innovators from minority communities, small-scale financing is provided through MUDRA Bank.

For social security, initiatives such as Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Yojana and Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Yojana are given to encourage social security. These initiatives contribute not only to narrowing the wealth gap through the even distribution of resources but also to establishing a pathway for economic growth in the Indian economy.

3. Fewer Labour Inputs and More Productivity

To encourage both domestic and international companies to invest in the Indian economy, particularly in manufacturing, and innovation, and more importantly, to achieve higher productivity with less input initiatives such as Make in India are encouraged, which not only helps for advancement in technology but also aid in mastering the skills.

The aim of the government of India’s Make in India scheme is to increase productivity and efficiency and reduce dependence on manpower across the different sectors of the Indian economy.

4. Abundance of Goods and Services

The rise in the production of goods and services for a certain period as compared to a previous period helps in the contribution of increased consumption by promoting market competitiveness and driving the innovation of an Indian economy.

Providing consumers with a good number of goods and services not only helps in catering choices but also creates opportunities for boosting business. An Indian economy with a steadfast supply of goods and services leads to stability of prices and improvement in the standard of living of the people.

In conclusion, addressing poverty, reducing the wealth gaps, increasing productivity with fewer labour inputs, and ensuring an abundant supply of goods and services helps in developing the Indian economy. The Indian government is actively implementing policies and technological advancements to encourage these factors and continually revising them to create a broad and steady Indian economy.

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1. How is GDP calculated?

Ans. GDP = Consumption + Investment + Government Spending + Net Exports
GDP = C + I + G +NX. Here, (C) is the consumption that represents private-consumption expenditures by households and nonprofit organizations, (I) is the investment that refers to business expenditures by businesses and home purchases by households, government spending, (G) denotes expenditures on goods and services by the government, and net exports (NX) represents a nation’s exports minus its imports.

2. What are the main characteristics of the Indian economy?

Ans. Low per capita income, large population, the service sector and diverse sectors such as manufacturing and agriculture are characteristics of the Indian economy.

3. Who is the father of Indian economy? 

Ans. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru is the father of the Indian economy. 

4. Which sector is the backbone of the Indian economy?

Ans. Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy as it helps in providing raw materials as well as raw materials to the various industries. 

5. What is the full form of GDP?

Ans. The full form of GDP is Gross Domestic Production.

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