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Korean War is an integral chapter under the world history section. Students who are preparing for upcoming government exams such as UPSC preparation, SSC and more. In this exam, questions may revolve around the beginning of the Korean War to the end of the war. To learn about all the necessary information regarding this crucial event, go through the blog below.
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⚔️ What is the Korean War?
On 25 June 1950, the Northern Korean Army invaded South Korea in a general attack at several strategic points along the 38th parallel. the North Korean Army invaded the South Korean territory. This war is famous as the Korean War.
- The Korean War was a conflict that took place in the Korean Peninsula from 1950 to 1953.
- It was a perilous struggle between North Korea, supported by the Soviet Union and later China, and South Korea, backed by the United States and the United Nations.
👉 Timeline of the Korean War
Following is a timeline of the Korean War, the events that led to it and the events that helped end it-
1945: Korea Gets Divided into Two
- Japan’s surrender in WW2 led to the divide of Korea along the 38th parallel, with the Soviet Union claiming the north and the United States claiming the south.
- Dec: The Moscow Conference fails to unify Korea.
1948: The Birth of Two Koreas
- On 10 May, the USSR established North Korea (DPRK) with Kim Il-sung as its leader.
- On 15 Aug, the United States established South Korea (ROK) with Syngman Rhee as leader.
1950: Outbreak of War
- North Korea on 25 June, invaded South Korea, starting the Korean War.
- The UN Security Council authorizes military support for South Korea.
- US troops landed at Incheon, shifting the tide in favour of South Korea.
- UN forces crossed the 38th parallel into North Korea.
- China entered the war on North Korea’s side.
1951: Negotiations and Change
- On July 10, talks of entering into an armistice began.
- President Truman dismissed General MacArthur.
1952: Election and Diplomacy
- Dwight D. Eisenhower became the US President.
- Eisenhower met Soviet leader Stalin to discuss the Korean War.
1953: End of War
- Jul 27: An armistice is signed, ending the Korean War. The 38th parallel is restored as the border between North and South Korea.
📌 Causes of the Korean War
Following are all the reasons essential to understanding the causes of the Korean War-
- Division at 38th parallel after WWII: Korea was split into two zones of occupation, with the Soviet Union in the north and the United States in the south, setting the stage for a divided Korea.
- Ideological clash – Communism vs. Capitalism: The Cold War rivalry between the communist Soviet Union and the capitalist United States contributed to differing visions for the future of Korea.
- Creation of separate governments – DPRK and ROK: In 1948, two distinct governments emerged in Korea, one in the north (DPRK) led by Kim Il-sung and one in the south (ROK) led by Syngman Rhee, each determined to reunify Korea under their ideology.
- Border trouble and propaganda: Tensions rose as North and South Korea engaged in border conflicts and propaganda campaigns.
- Soviet Union and China’s involvement: The Soviet Union provided military support and training to North Korea, while China sent troops, strengthening North Korea’s military capabilities.
- Limited US support for South Korea: With the United States focused on the Cold War in Europe, South Korea received limited support, leaving it vulnerable to North Korean aggression.
📊 Impact of the Korean War on Korea and Other Nations
This historical event impacted the lives of Korean people and other nations. Below, we have mentioned the impacts of the Korean War on different nations.
Impact on Korea:
- Loss of life
- Permanent Division of Korea
- Economic hardship
- Social and psychological trauma
Impact on Other Nations:
- United States: Significant costs in lives and money, escalating Cold War tensions.
- Soviet Union: Strengthened alliance with China and North Korea but strained economy.
- China: Shifted foreign policy and deepened Cold War involvement.
- Other Nations: Increased East-West tensions and contributed to nuclear proliferation.
🇮🇳 India’s Role in the Korean War
While several countries were occupied with picking sides in the Korean War, India acted as a neutral force and provided help in the following ways-
- Troop Deployment: India sent a 400-personnel medical field unit to support the UN forces in Korea in 1951.
- Financial and Logistical Support: India donated $1 million to the UN Korean Reconstruction Agency and supplied food, clothing, and medical provisions to the UN forces.
- Legitimising UN Intervention: India’s involvement as a non-aligned nation reinforced the credibility of the UN’s intervention in Korea.
- Morale Boost: The Indian field unit earned respect from both UN and North Korean soldiers, providing a morale boost to the UN forces.
- Promoting Peace: India’s role extended to post-war negotiations, aiding in the signing of the armistice in 1953, and providing humanitarian assistance to North and South Korea.
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India sent a medical field unit of 400 personnel to support UN forces during the Korean War. India’s contribution helped legitimize the UN intervention, boosted morale, and promoted peace and reconciliation in Korea.
The Korean War is also known as the “625 War” due to its commencement on June 25, 1950, when North Korea invaded South Korea.
The Korean War is famous as the incident when North Korea tried to invade the south Korean territory. Later, USA, China and other countries played an important role in this event.
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