40 Historical Facts About Harappan Civilization

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Harappan Civilization, also known as the Indus River Valley Civilization, is the earliest known urban culture of the Indian subcontinent. It was first discovered in 1921 in the Harappa region of Punjab followed by the discovery of Mohenjo Daro near the Indus River in the Sindh region. In 1980, UNESCO declared the ruins of Mohenjo Daro World Heritage Site. Here are some interesting facts about the Harappan Civilization.

General Facts About Harappan Civilization

  1. Researchers have found evidence of the drilling of human teeth. This shows that Harappan people had a basic knowledge of proto-dentistry.
  2. In 2001, researchers found eleven drilled molar crowns from a grave located at Mehrgarh. 
  3. The script used during the Harappan civilization has not been deciphered yet. 
  4. Researchers have found artefacts such as toys, games, spinning tops, miniature pots, clay bullock carts, and cubical dice with six holes. 
  5. Art and crafts made during the Harappan Civilization were made using metals like copper, bronze, and terracotta. 
  6. Researchers found 6 granaries in 2 rows featuring advanced technology, later observed in Rome 2800 years later. 
  7. The excavation sites also showcased citadels, burial grounds, and bathing platforms. 
  8. 16 water reservoirs were found at Dholavira, a major Harappan city.
  9. The bricks used during the Mature Harappan Period measured 7 x 14 x 28 cm and 10 x 20 x 40 cm. 
  10. Harappan Civilization features two and three storey houses. 
  11. It is probably one of the earliest civilizations to have houses with attached bathrooms. 
  12. The city of Mohenjo Daro features an exceptional water management system with 80 public toilets and over 700 wells. 
  13. Buttons during the Indus Valley Civilization were made using seashells. 
  14. It is believed that Mohenjo Daro was built nine times and each time on top of the earlier grid. 

Facts About the Size and Location of the Indus Valley Civilization

  1. Indus Valley Civilization is one of the largest four civilizations in the world. The other three are China, Egypt, and Mesopotamia. 
  2. It was spread over an area of 1,260,000 sq. km.
  3. It was located in modern-day India and Pakistan and was spread over vast areas such as Western Europe.
  4. Most of the settlements were located in the region of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra Rivers and their tributaries. 
  5. The seven major cities of the Indus Valley Civilization include Mohenjodaro, Kalibangan, Lothal, Chanhudaro, Surkotoda, Dholavira, and Banawali. 
  6. It houses the world’s first few planned cities arranged in grid patterns with streets crossing at right angles. 
  7. The population of the Indus Valley civilization was somewhere about 5 million out of which most were artisans and traders. 

Also Read: Decoding the Harappan Civilization (3300-1300 BCE)

Facts About Harappan Seals

  1. Archaeologists have discovered thousands of seals made using steatite, a special kind of soft stone, gold, terracotta, agate, and ivory. 
  2. The seals found in the Harappan civilization were used for commercial purposes. 
  3. They had pictures of animals, like bison, goats, tigers, and elephants, with something written in a pictographic script. 
  4. The most famous seal of the Harappan Civilization is the Pashupati Seal from Mohenjo Daro. It features a mystical cross-legged figure with animals around.  

Facts About Art and Craft of Harrapa Civilization

  1. Harappan people used ware made of terracotta, copper, and other commonly found metals. 
  2. They were also expert in metal bending and casting. 
  3. Harappans also used the lost-wax casting process.

Facts About the Economy of the Harappa Civilization

  1. The economy of the Indus Valley or Harappa Civilization was based on agriculture. 
  2. Trade and commerce were also popular during this period. 
  3. Weights and measures found at Lothal were made of steatite and limestone. 
  4. People were engaged in the cultivation of cotton. 
  5. Researchers believe that 16 was the unit of measurement. 

Also Read: Bronze Age: Facts, Weapons, Civilisations

Facts About Metallurgy in the Indus Valley Civilization

  1. Harappans knew the technique of smelting. 
  2. Researchers have found gold necklaces smaller than 0.25 mm in diameter at Lothal. 
  3. They were also well-versed in the method of casting. 

Facts About Religion in the Indus Valley Civilization

  1. Harappans believed in Yoni worship or nature worship.
  2. They worshipped Fire, called Havan Kund. 
  3. Pashupati Mahadeva was considered the lord of Animals. 
  4. They also worshipped animals. 

Hope you had fun reading these interesting facts about the Harappan Civilization. If you like reading about facts, you can visit our interesting facts page to read more such blogs.

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