First Anglo-Maratha War: History and Result

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first Anglo Maratha war

The first Anglo-Maratha war started in 1775 with the Treaty of Surat and met the end with the Treaty of Salbai in 1782. It was the beginning of clashes between the Marathas and the Britishers that was followed by two other wars. The area of this war was Surat and Poona, with the victory of the Marathas. Moreover, both the parties involved restored their previous positions after the end of the first Anglo-Maratha war. 

History of the First Anglo-Maratha War

The death of Madhavrao Peshwa in 1772, led to the shift of powers to his brother Narayanrao as the Peshwa of the Maratha empire.

  • However, after a while, Gangabai, the wife of Madhavrao gave birth to his son, Sawai Madhavaro. 
  • He was regarded as the official heir of the Maratha empire by twelve Maratha chiefs, the meeting that was led by Nana Phadnavis. 
  • Raghunath Rao, his grandfather’s brother, with no intentions of leaving his position, sought Britishers’ help to keep his throne.
  • Raghunathrao signed a treaty with the Britishers called the ‘Treaty of Surat’ on  March 1775. 
  • This treaty soon after was annulled by Warren Hastings, giving rise to another treaty called the ‘Treaty of Purandhar.’ 
  • In this treaty, Raghunathrao was handed over his pensions, however, Salsette was still with the Britishers. 

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This treaty was opposed by Nana Phadnavis who went to create an alliance with the French, in return he gave a seaport on the west coast. Birtishers could not stand this alliance and they sent a force towards Pune which led to a battle at Wadagaon in 1779. The first Anglo-Maratha war ended with the Treaty of Salbai in 1782. 

first Anglo-Maratha war

Result of the First Anglo-Maratha War

  • As per the conditions of the treaty of Surat signed by Raghunathrao and the Britishers, the areas ‘Salsette’ and ‘Broach’ went under the authority of the Britishers. 
  • The Maratha guaranteed that they would in the future again take their possessions in Deccan India.
  • Raghunathrao, as mentioned above, received his pension from the Britishers
  • No territory that was occupied by the Birtishers stayed with them. In the Treaty of Purandhar, everything went back to the Marathas. 
  • The Peshwa of the Maratha Confederacy was ‘Madhavrao II’ as recognized by the Britishers. 
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This blog was all about the first Anglo-Maratha war. If you want to read more articles like this, you can get Short notes on the Modern History of India here. Also, you can visit our general knowledge page on Indian History!

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