dulingo

NCERT Class 8 Science Chapter 5 ‘Conservation of Plants and Animals’: Notes and Solutions (Free PDF)

16 minute read
10 shares
Class 8 Science Chapter 5

Revision and preparation are essential to score well in any examination. During exam season, well-prepared notes become extremely useful. Any student who prepares with summarised notes has the probability to score more than others. Considering the same, we have prepared NCERT Solutions and Notes for Class 8 Science Chapter 5: Conservation of Plants and Animals. These notes are prepared by subject experts who are well aware of the latest CBSE guidelines. They have covered all important topics in short form to help you revise easily. After that, in the notes, you will find Solutions to the NCERT exercises. 

Also, you can download a PDF of important questions and answers to save time during exam preparation. Now, let’s explore this blog! 

Chapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3
Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6
Chapter 7Chapter 8Chapter 9
Chapter 10Chapter 11Chapter 12
Chapter 13

Class 8 Science Chapter 5 Conservation of Plants and Animals: Deforestation

Let’s explore the notes of Class 8 Science Chapter 5: Conservation of Plants and Animals. These notes have been prepared in a way that they cover all the important aspects of the chapter in a concise manner and in simple language making it easier for you to understand them.

Deforestation

Cutting down plants and forests on a large scale and then using the land for other purposes is known as deforestation

Some of the reasons behind deforestation are mentioned below:

  • Procuring land for cultivation. 
  • Building houses and factories. 
  • Making furniture or using wood as fuel.
Class 8 Science Chapter 5: Conservation of Plants and Animals: Deforestation

Also Read: Essay on Deforestation: 100 Words, 300 Words

Consequences of Deforestation

There are a lot of consequences of deforestation that affect the environment and us. Some of those consequences are mentioned below:-

  • It leads to an increase in temperature levels.
  • It leads to an increase in pollution levels.
  • Due to deforestation, the level of CO2 increases in the atmosphere which leads to global warming. 
  • Due to deforestation, the balance of nature is disturbed.
  • The rainfall and soil fertility will also decrease if deforestation continues.
  • Natural calamities such as droughts, floods, etc will occur more frequently.
  • Deforestation can cause disturbance in the water cycle thus causing droughts.
  • Deforestation leads to a decrease in the water-holding capacity of the soil. 
  • The movement of water from the soil surface into the ground (infiltration rate) is reduced leading to floods. 
  • The other properties of the soil like nutrient content, texture etc., also change because of deforestation.

Deforestation can lead to changes in the soil properties. The fewer the plants and trees, the more soil erosion. This leads to the removal of the top layer of soil thus exposing the below rock and hard lower layers that even lack proper humus and is less fertile. This conversion of fertile lands into deserts is known as desertification.  

Also Read: Speech on Deforestation for Students in English

Conservation of Forest and Wildlife

  • The biosphere is the part of the earth in which living organisms exist or which supports life. Biological diversity or biodiversity, refers to the variety of organisms existing on the earth, their interrelationships and their relationship with the environment.
  • To conserve biodiversity, efforts have to be made on all levels such as personal, social, and government levels as well. 
  • There are a lot of rules, policies, and methods that have been made to conserve biodiversity. Wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, biosphere reserves etc., are protected areas for the conservation of plants and animals present in that area. 

Also Read: Essay on Forest for Students in 500 Words

Source: Magnet Brains

Class 8 Science Chapter 5 Conservation of Plants and Animals: Protected Areas Notes

In this section, we have notes on protected areas like Biosphere Reserves, National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, etc, in the Class 8 Science Chapter 5 ‘Conservation of Plants and Animals’. Let’s learn!!

Biosphere Reserves

Those areas that are meant for the conservation of biodiversity are known as biosphere reserves

  • They are home to many varieties of plants and animals found in that area along with other protected areas. 
  • They help maintain the biodiversity and culture of that particular area. 
  • The Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve consists of one national park named Satpura and two wildlife sanctuaries named Bori and Pachmarhi.

Flora and Fauna

The plants and animals belonging to a particular area are known as the flora and fauna of that particular area. 

Class 8 Science Chapter 5: Conservation of Plants and Animals: Flora and Fauna

Also Read: Largest Forests in the World

Wildlife Sanctuary

Wildlife sanctuaries are areas where animals as well as their habitats are protected from any disturbances of the outside world.

  • Those people who live in wildlife sanctuaries are allowed to do certain activities such as grazing their livestock, collecting medicinal plants, firewood, etc.
  • Some of the threatened wild animals like black buck, white-eyed buck, elephant, golden cat, pink-headed duck, gharial, marsh crocodile, python, rhinoceros, etc., are protected and preserved in our wildlife sanctuaries.

Also Read: National Wildlife Day 2023: Importance, History and Facts

National Parks

National parks are the areas where animals are free to roam around and use their habitats and natural resources. These are so vast that they can preserve entire ecosystems.  They preserve flora, fauna, landscape and historic objects of an area.

  • There are more than one hundred National Parks in India.
  • “Satpura National Park” is the first Reserve Forest in India. The finest Indian teak is found in this forest. Rock shelters are also found inside the Satpura National Park. These are pieces of evidence of prehistoric human life in these jungles. Satpura Tiger Reserve is unique in the sense that a significant increase in the population of tigers has been seen there. 
Class 8 Science Chapter 5: Conservation of Plants and Animals: National Park: Wildlife Sanctuary

Also Read: Environment and Ecology for UPSC Prelims: Previous Year Questions ,Tips and Tricks to Prepare, and Best Books👩‍🎓

Types of Species

Species are a group of populations that are capable of interbreeding. Now, let us learn about endemic and endangered species as classified by the Red Data Book. But first, let us learn a few facts about the Red Data Book. 

Red Data Book

  • The red data book is the one that keeps records of all the endangered species of plants and animals.
  • It is maintained internationally by an organisation.
  • India also maintains a Red Data Book for plants and animals found in India.

Endemic Species

Species of plants and animals that are found in a particular are known as the endemic species. A particular type of plant or animal can be endemic to a particular zone, a state or a country.  

  • For example:- sal and wild mangoes of the endemic flora of the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve, the Bison, Indian giant squirrel and flying squirrel are endemic fauna of this area.
  • Certain factors such as introducing new species, etc may affect their natural habitat thus endangering their existence. 

Endangered species

Endangered species are those species that are on the verge of extinction due to a decrease in their numbers. Certain human activities such as hunting, poaching, etc have led to this.

Also Read: Speech on Endangered Species Need Protection

Other Concepts in Class 8 Science Chapter 5

In this section of Class 8 Science Chapter 5, we will learn about Migration, Reforestation, and Recycling of Paper. 

Migration

When a species of bird or any other animal leaves their natural habitat and goes to some other region of the world in search of food, shelter, etc, is known as migration

  • Migratory birds fly to faraway areas every year during a particular time because of climatic changes.
  • They fly to lay eggs as the weather in their natural habitat becomes very cold and inhospitable.
  • Birds who cover long distances to reach another land are known as migratory birds.
Class 8 Science Chapter 5: Conservation of Plants and Animals: Migration of Birds

Recycling of Paper

  • The making of paper is another reason behind deforestation.
  • It takes 17 full-grown trees to make one tonne of paper. Hence, we should save, reuse, and recycle paper and use it judiciously. 
  • This will also reduce the amount of harmful chemicals used in paper making.

Reforestation

The restoration of deforested areas by planting new trees is known as known as reforestation. It is the solution to deforestation. 

  • It can happen naturally if the deforested area is left undisturbed. 
  • In India, we have the Forest (Conservation) Act which is aimed at the preservation and conservation of natural forests and meeting the basic needs of the people living in or near the forest.
Class 8 Science Chapter 5: Conservation of Plants and Animals: Reforestation

Also Read: What is the Full Form of CITES?

Important Definitions in NCERT Class 8 Chapter 4 Combustion and Flame

Some important definitions from the Class 8 Chapter 4 are mentioned below:

  • Deforestation: Cutting down plants and forests on a large scale and then using the land for other purposes is known as deforestation
  • Desertification: The fewer the plants and trees, the more soil erosion. This leads to the removal of the top layer of soil thus exposing the below rock and hard lower layers that even lack proper humus and is less fertile. This conversion of fertile lands into deserts is known as desertification.  
  • Biosphere: The biosphere is the part of the earth in which living organisms exist or which supports life.
  • Biological diversity or biodiversity: It refers to the variety of organisms existing on the earth, their interrelationships and their relationship with the environment.
  • Wildlife Sanctuary: Wildlife sanctuaries are areas where animals as well as their habitats are protected from any disturbances of the outside world.
  • National Park: National parks are the areas where animals are free to roam around and use their habitats and natural resources.
  • Biosphere Reserves: These are large areas of protected lands that include and protect the wildlife, plants and tribal communities of that land. 
  • Flora and FaunaThe plants and animals belonging to a particular area are known as the flora and fauna of that particular area. 
  • Species: A group of populations that are capable of interbreeding.
  • Endemic Species: Species of plants and animals that are found in a particular are known as the endemic species
  • Endangered species: Those species that are on the verge of extinction due to a decrease in their numbers are known as endangered species. Certain human activities such as hunting, poaching, etc have led to this.
  • Ecosystem: Plants and animals living in an area along with the non-living constituents of that area such as climate, forests, rivers, etc. together constitute an ecosystem.
  • Migration: When a species of bird or any other animal leaves their natural habitat and goes to some other region of the world in search of food, shelter, etc, is known as migration
  • Reforestation: The restoration of deforested areas by planting new trees is known as known as reforestation.

Also Read: World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF): Objective, History and More

Chapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3
Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6
Chapter 7Chapter 8Chapter 9
Chapter 10Chapter 11Chapter 12
Chapter 13

NCERT Solutions of Class 8 Science Chapter 5: Conservation of Plants and Animals

Let us now explore NCERT Solutions of Class 8 Science Chapter 5 to get answers to all writing

questions in the lesson Conservation of Plants and Animals.

Exercise Questions

1. Fill in the blanks.

(a) A place where animals are protected in their natural habitat is called a _________.

(b) Species found only in a particular area are known as _______.

(c) Migratory birds fly to faraway places because of __________ changes.

Soln:

(a) A place where animals are protected in their natural habitat is called a sanctuary.

(b) Species found only in a particular area are known as endemic.

(c) Migratory birds fly to faraway places because of climatic changes.

2. Differentiate between the following.

(a) Wildlife sanctuary and biosphere reserve

(b) Zoo and wildlife sanctuary

(c) Endangered and extinct species

(d) Flora and fauna

Soln:

(a)

Wildlife Sanctuary Several life forms like plants, animals, and microorganisms conservation are possible ina reserve.
Wildlife sanctuaries are areas where animals as well as their habitats are protected from any disturbances of theoutside world.Several life forms like plants, animals, and microorganisms conservation are possible in a reserve.
Those areas that are meant for the conservation of biodiversity are known as biosphere reserves.Adequate habitat and protection are provided for the wild animals living in a sanctuary.
Eg: Jim Corbett National ParkEg: Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve

(b)

ZooThe conditions may or may not be adaptable for the animals.
Artificially kept animals in publicfacilities are known as zoos.Artificially kept animals in public facilities are known as zoos.
The conditions may or may not beadaptable for the animals.The animals are in their own conserved habitat.

(c)

Endangered SpeciesExtinct Species
The species of animals or plants that no longer exist are called Extinct species.Eg: Caribbean monk seal, great auk, passenger pigeon etc.
Eg: Bengal tiger, blue whale, etc.Eg: Caribbean monk seal, great auk,passenger pigeon etc.

(d)

FloraFauna
Eg: Spurge and hogweed from the Nilgiris regionIt is the collective name for the animal lifefrom a particular area.
It is the collective name for the animal life from a particular area.Eg: Langur, tiger, and tahr from the Nilgirisregion.

3. Discuss the effects of deforestation on the following.

(a) Wild animals

(b) Environment

(c) Villages (Rural areas)

(d) Cities (Urban areas)

(e) Earth

(f) The next generation

Soln:

(a) Effects of deforestation on wild animals

Cutting down plants and forests on a large scale and then using the land for other purposes is known as deforestation. Destroying forests means destroying the habitat of animals. This could become a threat to their existence and make them become endangered.

(b) Effects of deforestation on the environment

● It leads to an increase in temperature levels.

● It leads to an increase in pollution levels.

● Due to deforestation, the level of CO2 increases in the atmosphere which leads to global warming.

● Due to deforestation, the balance of nature is disturbed.

● The rainfall and soil fertility will also decrease if deforestation continues.

● Natural calamities such as droughts, floods, etc will occur more frequently.

● Deforestation can cause disturbance in the water cycle thus causing droughts.

● Deforestation leads to a decrease in the water-holding capacity of the soil.

● The movement of water from the soil surface into the ground (infiltration rate) is reduced leading to floods.

● The other properties of the soil like nutrient content, texture etc., also change because of

deforestation.

(c) Effects of deforestation on villages

Deforestation can lead to changes in the soil properties. The fewer the plants and trees, the more soil erosion. This leads to the removal of the top layer of soil thus exposing the below rock and hard lower layers that even lack proper humus and is less fertile. This conversion of fertile lands into deserts is known as desertification. Hence, the land that was once fit for agriculture later turns barren.

(d) Effects of deforestation on cities

● It leads to an increase in pollution levels.

● Due to deforestation, the level of CO2 increases in the atmosphere which leads to global warming.

● Natural calamities such as droughts, floods, etc will occur more frequently.

● Deforestation can cause disturbance in the water cycle thus causing droughts.

● The movement of water from the soil surface into the ground (infiltration rate) is reduced leading to floods.

(e) Effects of deforestation on Earth

Deforestation can lead to increased frequency of floods and droughts. It also leads to increased levels of CO2 in the atmosphere, which ultimately leads to global warming. The water cycle becomes disrupted, and hence, there is an increased risk of natural calamities.

(f) Effects of deforestation on the next generation

There are many effects of deforestation such as increased calamities, desertification, decreased soil fertility, endangered species of animals, less water-holding capacity of the soil, etc, and many more. Eventually, our future generations will face the consequences of the effects of deforestation.

4. What will happen if

(a) we go on cutting trees

(b) the habitat of an animal is disturbed

(c) the top layer of soil is exposed

Soln:

(a) If we go on cutting the trees

If we don’t stop cutting trees down then it will eventually lead to animals losing their habitat, and might also become extinct. This will create a significant impact on the ecosystem and imbalance it. The temperature of Earth will keep on increasing leading to global warming. This will inturn affect the water cycle, causing droughts and floods. The risk of all these will increase.

(b) The habitat of an animal is disturbed

If the habitat of animals is disturbed, the necessities of animals, that is food, water, their habitat, etc will affected forcing them to migrate. During this, some animals may even get killed.

(C) If the top layer of the soil is removed

Deforestation can lead to changes in the soil properties. The fewer the plants and trees, the more soil erosion. If the top layer of the soil is removed, it will expose the below rock and hard lower layers that even lack proper humus and are less fertile. This conversion of fertile lands into deserts is known as desertification.

5. Answer in brief.

(a) Why should we conserve biodiversity?

(b) Protected forests are also not completely safe for wild animals. Why?

(c) Some tribals depend on the jungle. How?

(d) What are the causes and consequences of deforestation?

(e) What is Red Data Book?

(f) What do you understand by the term migration?

Soln:

(a) Biological diversity or biodiversity, refers to the variety of organisms existing on the earth, their interrelationships and their relationship with the environment. Both plants and animals have a mutual dependence on each other for their survival. If even one of them is not conserved, it will affect the other and destroy it. So, in order to maintain the balance of the ecosystem, biodiversity has to be conserved.

(b) There are many communities of people that live near the forests. When they come in contact with wild animals, they might actually kill them. This can lead to a decrease in the number of animals and can disrupt the ecosystem of that area.

(c) The forests provide food and other resources to the tribal people. It is inevitable for them to depend on forests and their resources for everyday needs.

(d) A few causes of deforestation are listed below:

1. Forest areas are turned into urban jungles to accommodate the increasing population.

2. Forests are being cleared for agricultural activities.

3. One of the main reasons behind deforestation is using the timber as firewood.

Consequences of deforestation

There are a lot of fatal consequences caused by deforestation. A few of them are listed below.

1. It leads to an increase in temperature levels.

2. It leads to an increase in pollution levels.

3. Due to deforestation, the level of CO2 increases in the atmosphere which leads to global warming.

4. Due to deforestation, the balance of nature is disturbed.

5. The rainfall and soil fertility will also decrease if deforestation continues.

6. Natural calamities such as droughts, floods, etc will occur more frequently.

7. Deforestation can cause disturbance in the water cycle thus causing droughts.

8. Deforestation leads to a decrease in the water-holding capacity of the soil.

9. The movement of water from the soil surface into the ground (infiltration rate) is reduced leading to floods.

10. The other properties of the soil like nutrient content, texture etc., also change because of deforestation.

(e)

● The red data book is the one that keeps records of all the endangered species of plants and animals.

● It is maintained internationally by an organisation.

● India also maintains a Red Data Book for plants and animals found in India.

(f) When a species of bird or any other animal leaves their natural habitat and goes to some other region of the world in search of food, shelter, etc, is known as migration.

● Migratory birds fly to faraway areas every year during a particular time because of climatic changes.

● They fly to lay eggs as the weather in their natural habitat becomes very cold and inhospitable.

● Birds who cover long distances to reach another land are known as migratory birds

6. In order to meet the ever-increasing demand in factories and for shelter, trees are

continually being cut. Is it justified to cut trees for such projects? Discuss and prepare a

brief report.

Soln:

Cutting off trees in order to meet the increasing demand in factories and shelters is not justified. There are a large number of organisms that need forests as their habitat and survival depends on it. Forests help maintain the temperature of our planet, prevent soil erosion and desertification, improve the fertility of the soil, and provide food and shelter to numerous animals and birds. They help prevent natural calamities such as drought and floods and improve air quality. Deforestation and over-exploitation of forests can lead to a number of problems even in the near future such as:-

● Natural calamities

● Pollution

● Global warming acid rain

● Greenhouse effect

Deforestation also leads to disrupting the balance of nature. Hence, the conservation of forests should be our priority.

7. How can you contribute to the maintenance of the green wealth of your locality? Make

a list of actions to be taken by you.

Soln:

There are a lot of actions that can be taken to maintain the green wealth in my locality such as:

● Spreading awareness among people

● Organising weekly events on forest conservation

● Planting trees in large numbers

● Watering and maintaining the plants in the locality and parks.

8. Explain how deforestation leads to reduced rainfall.

Soln:

● Cutting down plants and forests on a large scale and then using the land for other purposes is known as deforestation.

● Photosynthesis takes place when plants absorb the CO2 from the atmosphere. When CO2 levels increase, they lead to the greenhouse effect that traps heat in the Earth’s atmosphere. This will lead to a rise in the Earth’s temperature which will disrupt the water cycle. This will lead to a chain of events eventually leading to changes in the rainfall pattern that can cause droughts.

10. Why should the paper be saved? Prepare a list of ways by which you can save paper.

Soln:

● The making of paper is one of the major reasons behind deforestation.

● It takes 17 full-grown trees to make one tonne of paper. Hence we should save paper

and use it judiciously.

● We can save paper by:-

1. Reuse papers.

2. Recycling paper .

3. By carefully using paper.

4. By spreading awareness among people and telling them about recycling and

reusing of paper.

11. Complete the word puzzle.

Down

1. Species on the verge of extinction.

2. A book carrying information about endangered species.

5. Consequences of deforestation.

Across

1. Species which have vanished.

3. Species found only in a particular habitat.

4. Variety of plants, animals and microorganisms found in an area.

Soln:

Down

1. Endangered

2. Red Data Book

3. Deserts

Across

1. Extinct

2. Endemic

3. Biodiversity

Source: BYJU’S Class 6,7,& 8
CBSE Notes Class 8 EnglishCBSE Notes Class 8 History CBSE Notes Class 8 Geography
CBSE Notes Class 8 CivicsCBSE Notes Class 8 MathematicsCBSE Notes Class 8 Science

FAQs

What is Red Data Book?

The Red Data Book is the one that keeps records of all the endangered species of plants and animals. It is maintained internationally by an organisation. India also maintains a Red Data Book for plants and animals found in India.

What is National Park Class 8 notes?

National parks are the areas where animals are free to roam around and use their habitats and natural resources. These are so vast that they can preserve entire ecosystems. They preserve flora, fauna, landscape and historic objects of an area.

Why do we need conservation class 8?

In order to maintain the balance in the ecosystem, forests as well as biodiversity need to be conserved.

Follow Leverage Edu for complete study material on CBSE Notes of Class 8 Science

Leave a Reply

Required fields are marked *

*

*