dulingo

NCERT Class 8 Science Chapter 1 ‘Crop Production and Management’: Notes and Solutions (Free PDF)

13 minute read
10 shares
Class 8 Science Chapter 1

To properly understand a chapter notes play an essential part. They are also important in revision, which will eventually enable a student to pass her/their/his exams. So, in NCERT Solutions and Notes Class 8 Science Chapter 1 Crop Production and Management we have provided summarised notes of the chapter. Also, get a free PDF of the solutions for future reference. The PDF contains answers to all questions in the chapter Crop Production and Management. Let’s proceed!

Chapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3
Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6
Chapter 7Chapter 8Chapter 9
Chapter 10Chapter 11Chapter 12
Chapter 13

Class 8 Science Chapter 1 Crop Production and Management Notes: Types of Crops and Agriculture Practices

To begin with, we have summarised notes of all topics in Class 8 Science Chapter 1 Crop Production and Management Notes. Herein, our subject experts have tried to explain all important topics in short and simple sentences for you to understand. 

Types of Crops

Here are the definitions and types of crops. 

  • Plants cultivated at a place in large numbers are known as a crop.
  • Depending on the season, there are two wide varieties of crops namely: Rabi and kharif Crops.
Rabi CropsKharif Crops
Crops sown in the winter season (October to March)Crops sown in the rainy season (June to September)
Examples: Wheat, gram, pea, mustard and linseedExamples: Paddy, maize, soya bean, groundnut and cotton

Basic Practices of Crop Production

Here are the basic agricultural practices or steps required for crop production:

  1. Preparation of soil 
  2. Sowing
  3. Adding manure and fertilisers 
  4. Irrigation 
  5. Protecting from weeds 
  6. Harvesting 
  7. Storage

Also Read: When did Agriculture Begin: A Timeline

Class 8 Science Chapter 1 Crop Production and Management Notes: Different Stages

Before planting trees, farmers and cultivators need to prepare the soil for better output. The process of production starts with ploughing followed by sowing, manure addition, irrigation, weeding, harvesting, and storage.

Source: Infinity Learn NEET

Ploughing

Before growing a crop, the soil is loosened. This helps in the growth of microbes and earthworms which add humus to the soil. Dead plants and animals get decomposed by soil organisms. Loosening of soil brings the nutrient-rich soil to the top allowing the plants to utilise the same. The process of loosening and turning the soil is called tilling or ploughing. This is done by using a plough.

Now, let us understand some related concepts:

  • Plough: This has been used since ancient times for tilling the soil, adding fertilisers to the crop, removing the weeds, turning the soil, etc. A plough consists of two parts: a triangular iron strip called the ploughshare and a long log of wood called a ploughshaft.
  • Hoe: It is a simple tool that is used for removing weeds and for loosening the soil. It has a long rod of wood or iron. A strong, broad and bent plate of iron is fixed to one of its ends and works like a blade. It is pulled by animals.
  • Cultivator: Nowadays ploughing is done by tractor-driven cultivator. The use of a cultivator saves labour and time.

Sowing

It is an important part of crop production. Good quality and high-yield seeds are chosen for sowing. For the selection of seeds, they are put in water. Damaged seeds become hollow and float on top of water and hence can be separated from healthy seeds. There are some tools used for sowing the seeds, which are as follows:

  • Traditional tool: It is shaped like a funnel. The seeds are filled into the funnel and passed down through two or three pipes having sharp ends. These ends pierce into the soil and place seeds there.    
  • Seed drill: It uniformly sows the seeds at equal distance and depth and ensures they get covered by soil thus protecting them from birds.

Adding Nutrients to Soil

The substances that are added to the soil as nutrients for the healthy growth of plants are known as manures and fertilisers. Farmers add manure to replenish the nutrients in the soil.

  • Manure: It is an organic substance obtained from the decomposition of plant or animal wastes. The use of manure improves soil texture as well as its water-retaining capacity. It replenishes the soil with nutrients.
  • Fertilisers: These are chemicals produced in factories, which are rich in a particular nutrient. For example: ammonium sulphate, superphosphate, potash, NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium). Fertilisers have helped farmers to get better yields of crops such as wheat, paddy and maize. Excessive use of fertilisers makes soil less fertile.
  • Crop rotation:  Another method that is used to replenish soil nutrients. This can be done by growing different crops alternately. For example: legumes are grown as fodder in one season and wheat in the next season. Rhizobium bacteria are present in the nodules of roots of leguminous plants. They fix atmospheric nitrogen.
S. No.FertilisersManure
1Man-made and Inorganic salt.Natural, and obtained by decomposition of cow dung and plant residues.
2Prepared in the factories.Prepared in the fields.
3Do not add humus to the soil.Adds humus to the soil.
4Rich in nutrients like nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous, etc.Relatively less rich in plant nutrients.

Advantages of Manure

Now, let us explore the advantages of manure:

  • It enhances the water-holding capacity of the soil. 
  • It makes the soil porous due to which exchange of gases is easy.
  • It increases the number of friendly microbes. 
  • It improves the texture of the soil.

Irrigation

The supply of water to crops at regular intervals is called irrigation. The time and frequency of irrigation varies from crop to crop, soil to soil and season to season. In summer, the frequency of watering is much higher. It is an essential step of soil preparation because water is essential for the germination of the seeds and the absorption of nutrients and minerals. Also, water protects the crop from both frost and hot air currents.

Here are some key points related to irrigation:

  • Sources of irrigation: These include wells, tube wells, ponds, lakes, rivers, dams and canals. Pumps are commonly used for lifting water. Diesel, biogas, electricity and solar energy are used to run these pumps.
  • Modern methods of irrigation include: Sprinkler System and Drip Irrigation.
Sprinkler SystemDrip Irrigation
When water is allowed to flow through the main pipe under pressure with the help of a pump, it escapes from the rotating nozzles. It gets sprinkled on the crop as if it is raining. This system is known as the Sprinkler System. In this system, water falls drop by drop directly near the roots. It is the best technique for watering fruit plants, gardens and trees. There is no wastage of water.

Weeding

Undesirable plants that grow along with the main crop are known as weeds. These weeds compete with crop plants for nutrients, space, water, etc thus affecting their growth. Hence, they need to be removed. Thus, the removal of weeds is called weeding.

Here are some important points related to Weeding:

  • The best time for the removal of weeds is before they produce flowers and seeds.
  • Manual removal of weeds is done by khurpi.
  • Weeds are also controlled by using certain chemicals, called weedicides, like 2,4-D.
  • The weedicides are diluted with water and sprayed in the fields.
  • The spraying of weedicides may affect the health of farmers. So they should use these chemicals very carefully. They should cover their nose and mouth with a piece of cloth during the spraying of these chemicals.

Harvesting

The cutting of crops after their maturation is known as harvesting. It usually takes 3 to 4 months for a cereal crop to mature. It can be done manually by a sickle or by a machine called the harvester.

Now, we will learn about the different steps of crop harvesting:

  • In the harvested crop, grain seeds are separated from the chaff, which is known as threshing. This is carried out with the help of a machine called ‘combine’ which is in fact a harvester as well as a thresher.
  • Farmers with small holdings of land do the separation of grain and chaff by winnowing.

Storage

While storing, it is important to protect the crop moisture, insects, rats and microbes. 

Here is how crops can be stored without damage:

  • Grains are properly dried in the sun before storing them. This prevents the attack by insect pests, bacteria and fungi.
  • Also, large-scale storage of grains is done in silos and granaries to protect them from pests like rats and insects.
  • Further, dried neem leaves are used for storing food grains at home.

Also Read: The Harvest Festivals In India: From Lohri to Hornbill

Important Definitions in NCERT Class 8 Chapter Crop Production and Management

To sum up, we have a recap of definitions in Class 8 Science Chapter 1:

  • Plants cultivated at a place in large numbers are known as a crop.
  • The process of loosening and turning the soil is called tilling or ploughing.
  • The substances that are added to the soil as nutrients for the healthy growth of plants are known as manures and fertilisers.
  • The supply of water to crops at regular intervals is called irrigation
  • Undesirable plants that grow along with the main crop are known as weeds.
  • The removal of weeds is called weeding.
  • The cutting of crops after their maturation is known as harvesting.
  • In the harvested crop, grain seeds are separated from the chaff, which is known as threshing.
  • Animals reared at home or in farms, have to be provided with proper food, shelter and care. When this is done on a large scale, it is called animal husbandry.
Source: BYJU’s 6,7, & 8

Also Read: Different Types of Plants: By Life Cycle, Seeds & Size

Chapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3
Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6
Chapter 7Chapter 8Chapter 9
Chapter 10Chapter 11Chapter 12
Chapter 13

NCERT Solutions of Class 8 Science Chapter 1 Crop Production and Management

Now, let us explore NCERT Solutions of Class 8 Science Chapter 1 to get answers to all writing questions in the lesson  Crop Production and Management. 

1. Select the correct word from the following list and fill in the blanks.

float, water, crop, nutrients, preparation

(a) The same kind of plants grown and cultivated on a large scale at a place is called _____________.

(b) The first step before growing crops is _____________ of the soil.

(c) Damaged seeds would _____________ on top of water.

(d) For growing a crop, sufficient sunlight and _____________ and _____________ from the soil are essential.

Soln:

(a) The same kind of plants grown and cultivated on a large scale at a place is called the crop.

(b) The first step before growing crops is the preparation of the soil.

(c) Damaged seeds would float on top of the water.

(d) For growing a crop, sufficient sunlight and water and nutrients from the soil are essential.

2. Match items in column A with those in column B.

AB
1- Kharif CropsA- Food for cattle
2- Rabi CropsB- Urea and superphosphate
3- Chemical fertilisersC- Animal excreta, cow dung urine and plant wastes
4- Organic manureD- Wheat, gram, pea
E- Urea and superphosphate

Soln:

1- Kharif cropsE- Paddy and maize
2- Rabi cropsD- Wheat, gram, pa
3- Chemical fertilisersB- Urea and superphosphate
4- Organic manureC- Animal excreta, cow dung urine and plant wastes

3. Give two examples of each.

(a) Kharif crop

(b) Rabi crop

Soln:

Kharif crops – Paddy and maize

Rabi crops – Wheat and pea

4. Write a paragraph in your own words on each of the following.

(a) Preparation of soil

(b) Sowing

(c) Weeding

(d) Threshing

Soln:

a) The first step in agriculture is the preparation of soil. It is done to loosen the soil, which is essential for the roots to be able to grasp the soil. Earthworms and microbes also grow better in loose soil adding humus to it and making it more fertile. Plants mainly grow in the top most nutrient-rich layer of the soil is brought up by loosening the soil.

b) In crop production, sowing is an extremely important part. Good quality and high-yield seeds are chosen for sowing. For the selection of seeds, they are put in water. Damaged seeds become hollow and float on top of water and hence can be separated from healthy seeds. After selecting healthy seeds, sowing is done by either traditional methods or by using the equipment’s seed drill.

c) Undesirable plants that grow along with the main crop are known as weeds. The removal of weeds is called weeding. They compete with crop plants for nutrients, space, water, etc thus affecting their growth. Hence, weeds need to be removed. The best time for the removal of weeds is before they produce flowers and seeds. Manual removal of weeds is done by khurpi.

Weeds are also controlled by using certain chemicals, called weedicides, like 2,4-D. The weedicides are diluted with water and sprayed in the fields.

d) In the harvested crop, grain seeds are separated from the chaff, which is known as threshing. This is carried out with the help of a machine called ‘combine’ which is a harvester as well as a thresher. Threshing is also done by winnowing, where the blow of air is used to separate the chaff from crops.

5. Explain how fertilisers are different from manure.

Soln:

S. No.FertilisersManure
1Man-made and Inorganic salt.Natural, and obtained by decomposition of cow dung and plant residues.
2Prepared in the factories.Prepared in the fields.
3Do not add humus to the soil.Adds humus to the soil.
4Rich in nutrients like nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous, etc.Relatively less rich in plant nutrients.

6. What is irrigation? Describe two methods of irrigation which conserve water.

Soln:

  • The supply of water to crops at regular intervals is called irrigation. The time and frequency of irrigation varies from crop to crop, soil to soil and season to season. 
  • In summer, the frequency of watering is much higher.
  • Sources of irrigation:- These include wells, tube-wells, ponds, lakes, rivers, dams and canals.
  • Pumps are commonly used for lifting water. Diesel, biogas, electricity and solar energy are used to run these pumps.
  • Modern methods of irrigation include:- Sprinkler System and Drip Irrigation.
  • Sprinkler System:- More useful when land is uneven and water is scarce. The perpendicular pipes, having rotating nozzles on top, are joined to the main pipeline at regular intervals. When water is allowed to flow through the main pipe under pressure with the help of a pump, it escapes from the rotating nozzles. It gets sprinkled on the crop as if it is raining.
  • Drip Irrigation:- The water falls drop by drop directly near the roots. So it is called a drip system. It is the best technique for watering fruit plants, gardens and trees. There is no wastage of water.

7. If wheat is sown in the Kharif season, what would happen? Discuss.

Soln:

Wheat crops, if sown in the Kharif season, may get destroyed because of unfavourable temperatures, pests and adaptable conditions for the plants to grow. Kharif are sown during the rainy season; hence it is not a good idea to grow wheat which is a rabi crop, to be sown in the Kharif season.

8. Explain how soil gets affected by the continuous plantation of crops in a field.

Soln:

Continuous plantation leads to depletion in the nutrients such as Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, etc. of the soil. Without nutrients, plants won’t be able to grow properly and will die. This results in a decrease in yield due to loss of nutrients; hence crops should be grown by giving gaps in between.

9. What are weeds? How can we control them?

Soln:

Undesirable plants that grow along with the main crop are known as weeds. The removal of weeds is called weeding. They compete with crop plants for nutrients, space, water, etc thus affecting their growth. Hence, weeds need to be removed.

The best time for the removal of weeds is before they produce flowers and seeds. Manual removal of weeds is done by khurpi. Weeds are also controlled by using certain chemicals, called weedicides, like 2,4-D. The weedicides are diluted with water and sprayed in the fields. The spraying of weedicides may affect the health of farmers. So they should use these chemicals very carefully. They should cover their nose and mouth with a piece of cloth during the spraying of these chemicals.

10. Arrange the following boxes in proper order to make a flow chart of sugarcane crop production.

NCERT Solutions For Class 8 Science Chapter 1-sol-1

Soln:

Preparation of soil -> Ploughing the field -> Sowing -> Manuring -> Irrigation -> Harvesting -> Sending crop to sugar factory

11. Complete the following word puzzle with the help of the clues given below.

Down

1. Providing water to the crops.

2. Keeping crop grains for a long time under proper conditions.

5. Certain plants of the same kind are grown on a large scale.

Across

3. A machine used for cutting the matured crop.

4. A rabi crop, which is also one of the pulses.

6. A process of separating the grain from the chaff.

Soln:

Down:-

1- Irrigation

2- Storage

5- Crop

Across:-

3- Harvester

4- Gram

6- Winnowing

Source: BYJU’s 6,7, & 8
CBSE Notes Class 8 EnglishCBSE Notes Class 8 History CBSE Notes Class 8 Geography
CBSE Notes Class 8 CivicsCBSE Notes Class 8 MathematicsCBSE Notes Class 8 Science

FAQs

Q1. What is crop Class 8 notes?

Plants cultivated at a place in large numbers are known as a crop. Depending on the season, there are two wide varieties of crops namely: Rabi and kharif Crops.

Q2. What is chapter 1 of class 8 science?

Chapter 1 of Class 8 science is Crop Production and Management.

Q3. What is the preparation of soil in Class 8 Science Chapter 1?

Preparing soil through tilling or ploughing using plough or tractors for sowing seeds is known as the preparation of soil.

Follow Leverage Edu for complete study material on CBSE Notes of Class 8 Science

Leave a Reply

Required fields are marked *

*

*