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Why is this topic important for competitive exams?
This is an important topic for UPSC candidates. This topic is important for the Mains GS Paper – 2 and the UPSC Optional International Relations. The UPSC Mains GS Paper 2 Syllabus covers a wide range of topics such as international relations, governance, polity, social justice, and so on.
Unipolarity In simple terms, a Unipolar World is a world order wherein there is only one nation that acts as or is the superpower. Other nation-states are under indirect or possibly direct control/influence of this superpower state. The world is under an implicit state of anarchy.
Bipolarity In simple terms, A Bipolar world is a world order in which two superpowers are the dominant powers, influencing or controlling the global state of the world politically, economically, militarily, culturally, or ideologically. There is a constant power struggle between these two superpowers.
Must Read: 🌍 World History UPSC: Topics, Notes, and Questions
New World Order: The World’s Transition from Bipolar to Unipolar
- The US and the USSR were the two superpowers in the world during the Cold War, which was generally perceived as a bipolar period.
- After the Cold War ended, the United States became the world’s sole superpower in the 1990s and 2000s.
📌Similarities & Differences Between Unipolar World & Bipolar World
Lets discuss some similarities between Unipolar World & Bipolar World-
- In both world orders, other nations almost have little to no say.
- In either world, only the dominant state(s) plays the major role in shaping the world order.
- There is a possibility that both worlds might succumb to instability and conflict.
When it comes to the differences between both worlds, following are some-
|No ideological conflict
|Possible ideological conflict
Think of yourself as a student in a class of 40 other students. Amongst, all the students, there one is a student who comes from a strong financial and social background. That student now interferes and controls their other classmate’s work, personal lives and decisions, simply because they are affluent. This is exactly how a unipolar world works, one nation-state acts as a domineering superpower because it has the military power, resources and a strong economy to do so.
Example of Unipolar World
The world became unipolar after the disintegration of the USSR in 1991. The United States then emerged as a sole superpower, with significant economic, military, and cultural influence over other nation-states. Since then, the US has used its influence to promote its interests and values around the world.
Merits and Demerits of a Unipolar World
Following are some merits of a Unipolar World-
- In a Unipolar World, a superpower can possibly promote global stability amongst other nation-states without worrying about ideology clash with a competitor.
- The superpower can help promote economic growth and prosperity.
- The dominant superpower can promote recognition and acceptance of basic human rights and democracy.
Following are some demerits of a Unipolar World-
- Too much power can lead to possible abuse of power.
- Lack of accountability.
- With the rise of challenger nation-states comes instability and resentment.
Consider the example we talked about while defining Unipolar World, a class with one affluent student who controls and influences other students. Now imagine another affluent student joins the class and also exerting control over the class. There is now a division in the class wherein all students side with one or the other affluent student. This is what a Bipolar World looks like, 2 powerful nation-states, both have their own ideology and concept of a perfect world, both compete for power to establish a world order that suits them.
Example of Bipolar World
A classic example of Bipolar World is ‘The Cold War’. The United States and the Soviet Union were the two dominant superpowers, and they competed for global influence. The US promoted democracy and capitalism, while the Soviet Union promoted communism. The two superpowers engaged in a variety of activities to assert their dominance, including proxy wars, arms races, and propaganda campaigns.
Merits and Demerits of a Bipolar World
The merits of a Bipolar World are as follows-
- Both superpowers acts as a counterbalance for each other.
- Cooperation between two superpowers can help build a peaceful multilateral world.
- If there is competition between superpowers, it can lead to innovation in several fields.
The demerits of a Bipolar are as follows-
- Increased risk of wars
- Idelogical conflict and hegemony
- Arms races
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A world order wherein one superpower singularly dominates and capable of influencing global affairs and other nation-states.
A world order wherein two superpowers are dominant and capable of influencing global affairs and other nation-states. There is a continuous power struggle between the two to gain dominance over the other.
Hegemony is the dominance of one state or group over others. It can be exercised through military, economic, cultural, or ideological means. Hegemony is often based on consent, meaning that the dominated groups accept the dominance of the hegemonic power.
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