The TNT full form is Trinitrotoluene. It is a yellow colour solid used as a reagent in chemical synthesis. It is extensively used as an explosive substance as it has the ability to turn to hot gases from solid very quickly. It is an organic compound which has three NO2 groups. Additionally, it has a methyl group (CH3), which is attached to its benzene ring. Therefore, the IUPAC name of this organic compound is 2 -methyl-1,3,5 trinitrobenzene. It is prepared after the nitration of toluene in multiple steps.
Properties of TNT
Here are the key properties of TNT:
|Chemical Formula of TNT||C6H2(NO2)3CH3|
|Other names of TNT||2,4,6-Trinitrotoluol;2,4,6-Trinitromethylbenzene; and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene|
|Boiling Point of TNT||240 °C|
|Melting Point of TNT||80.35 °C|
|Molecular Mass of TNT||227.132 g·mol−1|
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How to Prepare TNT?
Industries synthesise TNT in the following steps:
- The first step is Mono Nitro Toluene (MNT) formation through nitration. The nitration takes place in the presence of sulphuric acid and nitric acid.
- The second step is the separation of Di Nitro Toluene from MNT through nitration.
- The final step is the synthesis of TNT from DNT through the nitration process. The final nitration takes place in the presence of anhydrous nitric acid and oleum.
Applications of TNT
Here are the key applications of TNT:
- Used as an explosive in the mining, manufacturing, and defence sectors.
- Used in fracking. Also termed hydraulic fracturing, fracking is the process of extracting gas and oil from shale compounds or formations.
- Used in wet conditions as it does not dissolve in water nor does it absorbs water.
- Used as a better substitute for nitroglycerin as it is more safe in storage and transfer.
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Trinitrotoluene can be detected through the following methods:
- Electrochemical sensors
- Optical sensors
- Noble-metals quantum cluster
- Sniffing dogs
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