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Difference between Solid, Liquid and Gas

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The basic difference between solid, liquid and gas is that a solid is defined as a hard material that holds all of its molecules together with high intermolecular forces and low intermolecular space. Conversely, liquids flow more readily and are less stiff. They typically possess characteristics that allow them to move from higher to lower elevations. Compared to solids, liquids have this special quality.

In contrast to solids and liquids, gases possess different features. The primary property of gases is their free movement; there is little to no intermolecular force at work. Understanding the primary differences between gases, liquids, and solids is vital. 

Difference between Solid, Liquid and Gas

Basis of ComparisonSolidLiquidGas
DefinitionA form of matter that has a hard structureA form of matter that can flow easilyA form of matter with no definite shape or volume
ShapeDefinite shape. The form of the container into which the liquid is put will be the liquid’s shape. Wherever they occupy space, they take it’s shape
VolumeDefinite volume. Definite volume. No definite volume. 
Energy between BondsHighest energy between bondsLess than solid but greater than gasLowest energy between bonds
CompressibilitySolids are incompressible.Liquids are slightly compressible.Gases are highly incompressible.
Fluidity No fluidity.Liquids can flow easily. Very high fluidity
DiffusionSolids have very low diffusion.Liquids have a moderate rate of diffusion.They have a very high rate of diffusion.
Space Between Molecules LessLess than liquids and gases. Intermediate as compared to solids and gases. More than solids and liquids. 
DensityHigh DensityModerate density.Very low density.
Kinetic EnergyVery low kinetic energyModerate kinetic energyVery high kinetic energy.
Intermolecular ForceSolids have very strong intermolecular forces.Liquids have a weaker intermolecular force.Gaseous materials have weak intermolecular forces.
Examples Sugar, Salt, etc. Water, milk, etc. Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, etc. 

Also Read: What is the Difference Between Volume and Area: Complete Details

What is Solid?

Matter in its solid state has a unique form and a rigid structure. The solids we see in our surroundings most frequently are things like salt, sugar, ice, wood, brick, gold, etc. 

Characteristics of a solid are:

Solids have a few characteristics that are mentioned below:

  • Definite shape.
  • Definite volume.
  • Higher energy as compared to liquids and gases.
  • They cannot be compressed easily.
  • Less intermolecular space than molecules.
  • High intermolecular forces.
  • Consists high density.

What is Liquid?

A liquid is a type of matter that has a defined volume and flows readily. The liquids we see in surroundings most frequently are things like water, milk, coffee, blood, urine, petrol, etc. 

The characteristics of a liquid are:

Liquids have a few characteristics that are mentioned below:

  • Definite shape.
  • Definite volume.
  • Have intermediate space between the molecules.
  • The container in which the liquid is poured is the shape of the liquid.
  • Have fluidity.
  • Can’t be compressed.
  • Less intermolecular force than solids and more than gases.

Also Read: What is the Difference Between Pound and Kilogram?

What is Gas?

A kind of matter without a defined volume or shape is called a gas. The gases that we perceive in the surroundings most frequently are nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, air, and natural gases, among others.

Characteristics of gas are:

Gases have a few characteristics that are mentioned below:

  • No definite shape; they take the form of the objects in which they occupy space.
  • Can be easily compressed.
  • Has low volume and density as compared to solids and liquids.
  • High diffusion rate.
  • Gaseous molecules have more intermolecular space than molecules.
  • They have low intermolecular forces.
  • Less energy as compared to solids and gases.

Simiilarities between Solid, Liquid and Gas

  • Matter is made up of liquids, solids, and gases. They consist of molecules, ions, or atoms.
  • Particle arrangement: Particles exist in each of the three states. The way the particles are arranged varies, though. Particles are arranged in a regular manner and closely packed together in solids. Particles in liquids can move more freely but still being close to one another. Particles in gases are dispersed widely and move at random.
  • Volume: All substances have a specific volume and take up space, including gases and liquids. They take up different amounts of space, though. Liquids and gases can change their volume based on conditions, whereas solids have a constant volume.
  • Mass is a property of gases, liquids, and solids. The quantity of matter in an object or substance is measured by its mass.
  • Diffusion: The particles in solids do not easily diffuse, or migrate from one place to another. While they can spread, liquids do so more slowly than gases. Because their particles travel quickly and can disperse throughout a space, gases are very diffusive substances.
  • Physical characteristics: density, viscosity, and conductivity are just a few of the physical characteristics that solids, liquids, and gases can display. Nevertheless, depending on the state of the matter, these qualities have different values.

These are a few similarities among gases, liquids, and solids. It’s crucial to remember that every state of matter differs from the others due to its own special characteristics and behaviours.

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FAQs

What are the different states of matter?

Various states of the matter include:
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Plasma
Bose-Einstien Condensate

Which state of matter can flow?

Liquids and gases are the states of matter that can flow.

Can solids flow?

No, solids cannot flow as they have a rigid structure. For example, wood, mobile phones etc. 

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