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What is the Difference between Acid and Base?

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What is the Difference between Acid and Base

The main difference between acid and base is that acids serve as proton donors, while bases act as proton acceptors. Acids have a releasable H+ ion, they are chemical substances that donate protons and are easily identified. Chemical substances known as bases, or inorganic bases, are easily identified as proton acceptors because they have a releasable OH- ion. When bases and acids react in a solution, the OH- ions neutralise the H+ ions and combine to produce water molecules.

What is Acid?

Acids are compounds that allow one molecule to receive an ion of hydrogen (H+) often referred to as a base. According to conventional definitions, an acid is any chemical molecule that, when dissolved in water, solves with a higher activity of hydrogen ions than pure water. Acids are known to turn blue when they react with litmus red.

Acid’s properties

  • Acids damage things by nature.
  • They function as outstanding electrical conductors.
  • They never have a pH of greater than 7.
  • When these chemicals interact with metals, hydrogen gas is produced.
  • Acids taste sour to the palate.
  • Among these are acetic acid [CH3COOH], hydrochloric acid [HCl], and sulfuric acid [H2SO4].

What is Base?

In contrast, a naturally soluble base is called an alkali. Salts are created when specific substances are mixed with volatile liquids (acids). The salts formed became known as bases because they would eventually form an asphalt basis. Bases are H+ acceptors while acids are H+ donors. It is known that bases react red when exposed to litmus blue.

Base’s properties

  • They feel like soap when you touch them.
  • When these substances dissolve in water, hydroxide ions (OH- ions) are released.
  • In their aqueous solutions, bases function well as electrical conductors.
  • Bases always have pH values higher than 7.
  • Chemicals known as bases have an unpleasant taste and can turn red litmus paper blue.
  • Magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2], calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2], and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) are some examples of bases.

Difference between Acid and Base

To give a better understanding of the difference between acid and base, a table has been provided below:

BasisAcidBase
DefinitionEvery chemical substance that dissolves in water yields a solution that has higher hydrogen ion activity than pure water.A base is an aqueous element that can take up hydrogen ions.
StrengthIt depends on the concentration of the hydronium ionsIt depends on the concentration of the hydroxide ions
ExamplesAcetic acid CH3COOH and sulfuric acidSodium Hydroxide (NaOH) and Ammonia
Characteristics (Physical)It would look solid, liquid or in the form of gas. It would also have a sour taste.It would feel slippery and solid (except for ammonia, which is gaseous). It would have a bitter taste.
DisassociationAcids would release hydrogen ions (H+) when mixed with waterBases would release hydroxide ions(OH-) when mixed with water
Test with LitmusWould turn blue litmus redWould turn red litmus blue

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FAQs

What is acid’s easy definition?

Any chemical that contains hydrogen and can mix with other compounds to form salts is called an acid. Usually, it’s a liquid. Acids can burn or disintegrate objects when they come into contact with them.

How does base taste?

Compared to acids, bases are less common in food and have a harsh flavour. A lot of bases are slippery to the touch, like soaps. The colours of the indicators are also altered by bases.

Is strong acid the same as concentrated acid?

While dissociation power determines an acid’s potency, its concentration is determined by the amount of water in it.

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