NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Chapter 2 History “Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution” Class 9 (Free PDF)

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NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Chapter 2 History “Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution” Class 9 (Free PDF)

NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Chapter 2 History “Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution¨ aims to provide students with insightful solutions. Our subject matter experts have offered simple and accurate answers for the exercises in the history book ¨India and the Contemporary World-I.¨

NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Chapter 2 History “Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution¨ are designed in an easy-to-understand manner to help students grasp the topics easily. Students can use these varieties of  NCERT solutions and learn more about these interesting topics comprehensively. 

We hope that the History Chapter 2 NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Chapter 2 History “Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution¨will be helpful for the students. 

Check Out NCERT Solutions Class 9 History of Other Chapters 

Chapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5

Also Read: NCERT Notes and Solutions Class 8 Civics

Important Questions and Answers of NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Chapter 2 History “Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution” Class 9 (Free PDF)

Let us look at NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Chapter 2 History “Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution” Class 9 within the lesson. Our subject experts have answered these questions accurately and per the latest CBSE guidelines.

Question: What did liberals want in society?
Answer: Liberals wanted religious tolerance, a representative parliamentary government, and an independent judiciary.

Question: How did the Industrial Revolution change society?
Answer: The Industrial Revolution led to new cities, industrial regions, and harsh working conditions, prompting calls for reforms.

Question: Who were key figures in early socialist thought?
Answer: Robert Owen, Louis Blanc, Karl Marx, and Friedrich Engels were key figures in early socialist thought.

Question: What was the significance of the 1905 Revolution in Russia?
Answer: The 1905 Revolution led to the creation of an elected consultative Parliament (Duma) by the Tsar.

Question: What caused the February Revolution in 1917?
Answer: Food shortages, economic hardships, and social unrest caused the February Revolution in 1917.

Question: What changes did Lenin demand in the April Theses?
Answer: Lenin demanded an end to the war, land transfers to peasants, and the nationalisation of banks in the April Theses.

Question: What happened during the October Revolution of 1917?
Answer: Lenin and the Bolsheviks seized power, leading to the establishment of a socialist government in Russia.

Question: How did the Bolsheviks change Russia after the October Revolution?
Answer: The Bolsheviks nationalized industry and banks, redistributed land, and created a one-party state.

Question: What was the result of Stalin’s collectivization policy?
Answer: Stalin’s collectivization policy caused severe famine and economic difficulties but continued centralized planning.

Question: How did the Russian Revolution influence the world?
Answer: The Russian Revolution inspired global communist movements and established the USSR as a major socialist power.

Also Read: NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 2 ¨From Trade to Territory The Company Establishes Power Notes¨ (Free PDF)

Questions

Question 1: What were the social, economic, and political conditions in Russia before 1905?
Ans. The social, economic, and political conditions in Russia before 1905 were:
Social Conditions:
– Most people were poor peasants living in rural areas.- Nobles and the Orthodox Church owned large estates.
– Urban workers faced harsh working conditions and low wages.

Economic Conditions:
– Russia had a mostly agrarian economy with some industry in cities like St. Petersburg and Moscow.
– There was significant poverty and high unemployment.
– Limited industrialization and heavy reliance on agriculture.
Political Conditions:
– Russia was an autocracy ruled by Tsar Nicholas II.- People had no political freedom or representation.- Political parties and unions were illegal, leading to widespread unrest.

Question 2: In what ways was the working population in Russia different from other countries in Europe before 1917?
Ans. The ways in which the working population in Russia were different from other countries in Europe before 1917:
– Russian workers had longer working hours and lower wages compared to European workers.
– They faced severe political repression, with no legal unions or political parties.
– Many workers were former peasants who had migrated to cities, blending agrarian and industrial labour.
– Russia was less iindustrialised causing greater economic disparities and harsher living conditions.

Question 3.  Why did the Tsarist autocracy collapse in 1917?
Ans. The reasons for which Tsarist autocracy collapsed in 1917 were:

– Russia suffered military defeats and high casualties in World War I, weakening the regime.
– Severe economic hardships, food shortages, and inflation caused widespread discontent.
– The Tsar refused to share power or reform, eroding support.
– Mass strikes and demonstrations, especially the February Revolution, forced the Tsar to abdicate.

Question 4. Make two lists: one with the main events and the effects of the February.
Answer. Revolution and the other with the main events and effects of the October Revolution. Write a paragraph on who was involved in each, who were the leaders and what was the impact of each on Soviet history.

February Revolution:
Main Events: 
– Workers’ strikes and demonstrations in Petrograd.
– Formation of the Petrograd Soviet.
– Abdication of Tsar Nicholas II.
– Establishment of the Provisional Government.

Effects: 
– End of the Tsarist autocracy.
– Temporary dual power between the Provisional Government and the Soviets.
– Increased political freedom and social reforms.

Paragraph:
The February Revolution involved workers, soldiers, and peasants, led by the Petrograd Soviet and moderate socialist leaders like Alexander Kerensky. It resulted in the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the formation of a Provisional Government. The October Revolution, led by the Bolsheviks with leaders like Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky, overthrew the Provisional Government and established a socialist regime. Both revolutions significantly impacted Soviet history, ending autocracy and establishing a socialist state.

Question 5. What were the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution?
Ans. The main changes that were brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution were:
– They nationalized industry and banks.
– They redistributed land to peasants.
– They established a one-party state with the Bolshevik Party renamed as the Communist Party.
– They withdrew from World War I by signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
– They initiated state control over the economy and society.

Question 6.  Write a few lines to show what you know about:
The Kulaks,
– The Duma
Women workers between 1900 and 1930
The Liberals
Stalin’s collectivization program.

Ans: Kulaks:
– Kulaks were wealthy peasants in Russia.
– Stalin targeted them during collectivization for hoarding grain and resisting collective farms.
– Many kulaks were arrested, deported, or executed.

The Duma:
– The Duma was an elected legislative body in Russia, created after the 1905 Revolution.
– It had limited powers and was often dismissed by the Tsar.
– The Duma was a step towards constitutional monarchy but ultimately ineffective in curbing autocracy.

Women Workers between 1900 and 1930:
– Women workers faced harsh conditions, long hours, and low pay.
– They played significant roles in strikes and revolutionary activities.
– The Bolshevik regime promoted women’s rights, including equal pay and maternity leave, but implementation was limited.

The Liberals:– Liberals wanted political reforms, constitutional monarchy, and civil rights.
– They opposed absolute monarchy and supported a parliamentary system.
– They played a significant role in the 1905 Revolution but were marginalized after the Bolsheviks took power.

Stalin’s Collectivization Programme:
– Launched in 1929 to consolidate individual landholdings into collective farms (kolkhozes).
– Aimed to increase agricultural production and state control over the countryside.
– Led to widespread famine and deaths due to forced requisitioning and poor management.

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