The Palaeolithic age is the oldest section of the Stone Age, also called the Old Stone Age. It is a vast time of history when humans started using stone tools and developed their use from unfinished hand tools to more sophisticated tools being used for various purposes. It was the age of hunters and gatherers who produced these tools for simple objectives. This period belongs to a time when human life records were scarce. Palaeolithic age was believed to end around 1,200 BC. The Paleolithic age itself exists in various phases and has various exclusive features. Read on to learn more about the Paleolithic age.
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Phases of the Paleolithic Age
The Palaeolithic age can be divided into three phases of existence, based on the nature and usage of stone tools that existed during the time. These phases are;
- Lower Palaeolithic
- Middle Palaeolithic
- Upper Palaeolithic
Lower Palaeolithic Age
This age is attributed to the time when stone tools were first used by humans. The first samples of these basic tools were discovered in Africa, a part of the Oldowan Tradition. These tools mainly consisted of choppers and scrapers and tools like hand axes were used to kill animals. This period also records a regulated use of fire.
Middle Palaeolithic Age
This age belongs to the Mousterian culture where the existence of Neanthredals also connects. The remains of Neanthredals have been found in caves in Europe, North Africa, Palestine, and Siberia. These were often found with fossilised evidence of fire usage. They were mammalian hunters and used animal skin, fur and bone for warmth and making tools and utensils. Flakes and handaxes were the most used tools at this time.
Upper Palaeolithic Age
This is the age when Neanthredals were overtaken by modern humans and they slowly vanished from the surface of the earth. The new tools in trend during this time were blades, these were made twice as long as they were wide and had parallel sides. Blades themselves were used to develop many other tools. People started to live in areas that were more like shelters with floors and windbreaks. They finally came out of the cave and lived in settlements that were more like huts.
Stone tools are the main technological advancements of the Palaeolithic age. The three phases of the Palaeolithic age are in fact divided on the basis of the evolution of these tools. These people as hunters learned to divide their work as hunters, foragers and other roles. Humans of this age are deeply studied by Anthropologists to depict patterns of group hunting. Blade tools were introduced in the later Palaeolithic period and these were made of bone, ivory, antler, wood and more. Towards the end of this age, humans had learned to make barbed harpoons and spear-throwers.
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During this time, humans established shelters in settlements, created varied tools, even traded goods and services and also instituted social hierarchies and cultures. They also repeatedly travelled long distances to find more of their likes. This could not have happened without communication and therefore scientists have theorised that the earliest use of some form of language came into effect during this time. While studying the skeletons, the development of brain areas associated with speech was also noted by scientists. This led to cultural groupings, common morality and beliefs starting to seep into the society of early humans.
That is how humans traversed along the long Palaeolithic age learning and evolving in each of its phases and learning to become innovators and society builders. For more such informative blogs on Indian History stay tuned to our General Knowledge section.
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