What Is The Capital Of Israel?

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what is the capital of Israel

The capital of Israel is Jerusalem. Israel is a country located in the Southern Levant region of Western Asia. Bordered by Lebanon and Syria to the north, Jordan and the West Bank to the east, Egypt and the Red Sea to the south, and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Israel’s economic hub is Tel Aviv, while Jerusalem serves as its claimed capital, though international recognition of Israeli sovereignty over East Jerusalem is limited. But most people know the capital of Israel is Jerusalem. Let’s learn everything about Jerusalem in this article. 

Overview of Jerusalem

Jerusalem is considered as one the capital city of Israel with great history and conflict. 

LocationSouthern Levant, on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains
SignificanceHoly city to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Claimed CapitalsBoth Israel and Palestine
International RecognitionNeither claim to Jerusalem as capital is widely recognized
HistoryDestroyed twice, besieged 23 times, captured/recaptured 44 times, attacked 52 times
Early SettlementThe city of David area shows signs of settlement in the 4th millennium BCE

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Brief History of Jerusalem

Jerusalem is the claimed capital of Israel and Palestine, it makes it obvious that this capital city is a much-conflicted place. 

  • Jerusalem’s pivotal position in Jewish and Palestinian national narratives leads to selective interpretations of its 5,000-year history, often influenced by ideological biases.
  • Israeli or Jewish nationalists claim a historical right to the city based on Jewish roots dating back to the Israelites, claiming Jerusalem as their ancient capital and yearning for its return.
  • Palestinian nationalists argue for their right to Jerusalem, citing their long-term presence and diverse ancestral ties to the region, alongside its significance in Islam, supported by the Arab and Muslim world.
  • Both sides accuse each other of politicizing Jerusalem’s history to bolster their respective claims, highlighting differing interpretations of key historical events and eras in the city’s past.

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Demography of Jerusalem

Jerusalem’s population has varied significantly over 5,000 years. It could be done due to religious and tourism reasons. 

Old City Quarters: Since the 19th century, the Old City has been divided into Jewish, Muslim, Christian, and Armenian quarters, possibly originating from the 1841 British Royal Engineers map or Reverend George Williams’ labeling.

Population Data: Before 1905, population figures were mostly estimates from foreign travelers or organizations, as earlier census data covered broader areas like the Jerusalem District.

Source- Research Gate

Majority Groups: Historically, Muslims were likely the largest group in Jerusalem from the end of the Crusades until the mid-19th century.

Conflicting Estimates: Between 1838 and 1876, estimates differ on whether Jews or Muslims were the dominant group. From 1882 to 1922, estimates vary on the timing of Jews becoming the absolute majority in the population.

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Geography of Jerusalem

The geography of the capital of Israel is quite simple, yet it holds religious significance. 

  1. Elevation: 2,575 feet (785 meters)
  2. Location: Hills in Israel or the West Bank
  3. Old City: Walled medieval enclosure at the center
  4. Surroundings:
  • East: Dead Sea and Jordan River with mountains of Jordan
  • West: Coastal plain and Mediterranean Sea (35 miles away)

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Economy of Jerusalem

The economy of Jerusalem is majorly driven by government and public employment. Secondly, pilgrims and tourists also play an important role in the economy of the capital city of Israel.

Government & Public ServiceA strong source of jobs
Tourism & PilgrimageBooming industry (except during conflicts)Vulnerable to political instability
Construction & HospitalityEmploys West Bank Arabs (stable times)High unemployment compared to coastal Israel
High-TechGrowing sector with office complexesLimited overall impact
PovertyIncome rising for mostConcentrated in Old City & specific communities

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Culture of Jerusalem

Jerusalem is a perfect cultural location with traditional activities taking place almost everywhere. It is a hub for art and culture, despite being primarily known for its religious significance. The Israel Museum is a major attraction, showcasing Judaica, archaeological finds, and Israeli & European art. It even houses the Dead Sea Scrolls!

Other museums include the Ticho House (paintings & Judaica collections), Bible Lands Museum, Rockefeller Museum (archaeological), and Yad Vashem (Holocaust memorial). The Jerusalem Biblical Zoo is a popular tourist destination.

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Facts of Jerusalem

The final part of the article is the facts about the capital of Israel. Scroll up to know more about it. 

  1. Jerusalem is fortified by a massive wall, stretching for about 2.5 miles, reaching 40 feet in height and boasting a thickness of 8 feet.
  1. As a longstanding tradition, many Jews orient themselves towards Jerusalem, the holy city and former location of the Temple, whenever they pray.
  1. Jerusalem has 33 Muslim mosques, 50 Christian churches, and Jewish synagogues. 
Source- holidayfy.com

  1. The emblem of the capital city of Israel has a lion which is a symbol of the Lion of Judah, along with a wall and an olive branch. 
  1. High altitude (over 700 meters) brings surprising winter snow to Jerusalem, which is ironically a desert city.


Who controls Jerusalem?

Jerusalem is an ancient city of the Middle East that since 1967 has been wholly under the rule of the State of Israel.

Why is Jerusalem holy to Muslims?

In Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city after Mecca and Medina. Muslims believe that Muhammad was transported to Jerusalem during his Night Journey.

Who owns Gaza?

The Gaza Strip is currently under the control of Hamas.

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