What is the Capital City of Madhya Pradesh?

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what is the capital city of Madhya Pradesh

The capital city of Madhya Pradesh is Bhopal. The administrative headquarters of MP is Bhopal and is located in the central part of India, on the southern edge of the Vindhya Range of the Malwa region. Forests, hills and fertile plains surround the city. The city is famous for its combination of natural and man-made lakes. Bhopal is also known for its rich cultural heritage, art and architecture. The city does have several historical landmarks like mosques, forts and palaces. Bhopal is also home to several museums, art galleries and cultural institutions that promote the city’s art and culture. In this blog, we will learn more about what is the capital city of Madhya Pradesh. 

About Bhopal: The City of Lakes

Bhopal is situated in the heart of India. It is also famously known as the ‘City of Lakes’. Geographically, Bhopal is located in the Malwa Region along the banks of Upper Lake and Lower Lake on the Southern edge of the Vindhya Ranges. 

  • Bhopal’s history dates back to the prehistoric era of around the 11th century and was founded by Raja Bhoja, the Parmara King. Bhopal is archaeologically believed to have been developed in the Paleolithic age.
  • The name of Bhopal is derived from Bhoj Tal (Bhoj’s Lake), which was constructed by Raja Bhoj himself. 
  • Various dynasties like the Mughals and Marathas, ruled over Bhopal.
  • Bhopal was merged with Madhya Pradesh in 1956, under the State Reorganization Act. 
  • It holds the 16th position among Indian cities in terms of population.
  • Bhopal is also home to several national-level educational institutions.
  • For three years in a row, Bhopal has been named the cleanest capital city in India.
  • It was also selected as one of the cities for development under the “Smart City Mission” initiative.

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Geography and Demography of Bhopal

Bhopal sits at an average height of 500 meters (1401 feet) and is situated in the heart of India, just beyond the peak of the Vindhya mountain ranges. 

  • It’s perched on the Malwa plateau, towering above the plains of northern India and gradually ascends towards the Vindhya Range to its south.
  • The area is home to 855 people per square kilometre (2,210 per square mile), making it densely populated. 
  • From 2001 to 2011, the population of the district grew by 28.46%.
  • For every 1,000 males, there are 918 females, and the literacy rate stands at 80.37%.
  • A majority, 80.85%, of the inhabitants reside in cities.
Bada Tal or Bhoj Lake of Bhopal.

Bhopal’s Economy

Bhopal has many MSMEs and large industries and is the financial and economic hub of the state. 

  • Industries such as Automobiles, electrical goods, textiles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, cotton and jewellery.
  • The largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India – Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), is situated in Bhopal. 
  • In 1984, Bhopal experienced a catastrophic gas leak incident, which is known to be the most severe industrial accident in the world.

Also Read – What is the Capital City of Bihar?

Interesting Facts about Bhopal

Some of the facts about Bhopal are  – 

  • The renowned “Chanderi” and “Zardozi” methods of embroidery, originated in Bhopal.
  • The Bhopal Gas Tragedy is a term used to describe the chemical leak that occurred in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, in 1984. On December 3, 1984, approximately 45 tons of gas methyl isocyanate was released from a pesticide manufacturing facility. The facility was a subsidiary of the American company Union Carbide Corporation. It is believed that the incident resulted in a death toll ranging from 15,000 to 20,000 people. Those who survived the tragedy suffered from breathing difficulties, loss of sight, and irritation in the eyes. In 1998, ownership of the factory was transferred to the Indian government of Madhya Pradesh. 
  • The aftermath of the disaster caused significant pollution of the soil and water, leading to an increase in birth defects. The Department of Bhopal Gas Tragedy Relief and Rehabilitation was created in 1985.
  • In 2010, the former leaders of Union Carbide’s subsidiary in India were found guilty of negligence.
  • “The Bhopal Saga,” written by Ingrid Eckerman, offers a comprehensive examination of this catastrophic industrial incident. 
  • Every year, on the 2nd of December, National Pollution Day is observed to honour the memory of those affected by the Bhopal Gas Tragedy.

Overview of Madhya Pradesh

In terms of size, Madhya Pradesh ranks as the second-largest state in India. For a long time, Madhya Pradesh held the top spot as the most extensive state in India. However, following the creation of Chhattisgarh from Madhya Pradesh, it dropped to second place. 

  • Situated in the heart of India, Madhya Pradesh was initially the nation’s capital after independence, with Nagpur serving in that capacity. Following the enactment of the States Reorganisation Act, the country’s states were organized by language, leading to Bhopal becoming the capital of Madhya Pradesh. 
  • The state is the house of the largest deposits of copper and diamonds in the country.
  • Madhya Pradesh is also abundant in other mineral wealth, including dolomite, manganese, coal, and coalbed methane.
  • The state is renowned for its honey production, with three of the country’s eighteen biosphere reserves located within its borders.
  • The state is also home to ten national parks, including Pench National Park, Panna National Park, Kanha National Park, and Bandhavgarh National Park, among others.
  • The Indian paradise flycatcher is designated as the state bird of Madhya Pradesh.


What is the old name of Madhya Pradesh?

Central Provinces and Berar

What is the old name of Bhopal?

Bhojpal was the previous name of Bhopal. The origin of the word Bhopal can be traced back to its previous name Bhojpal, as per the data shown in the following excerpt from the Imperial Gazetteer of Central India, 1908, page 240.

What is the heart of Bhopal?

Upper Lake, also referred to as Bada Talab/Bhojtal, is among the largest artificial lakes in the country and is the heart of Bhopal.

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