GMAT Profit and Loss Questions

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Profit and Loss Questions

If you have been preparing for competitive exams you must be aware of the quantitative section syllabus. Profit and loss questions are one of the key concepts that one should be aware of because of the frequency of questions asked on this topic in any competitive exam. If you are not familiar with or if you are unaware of the key concepts behind profit and loss question then this blog will help you out with the key concepts and formulas required to solve questions on this topic. Acing the profit and loss questions can help you in getting a good score in the quantitative section which will help you in having an edge over others. 

Profit and Loss Questions: Key Concepts and Formula

You must be aware of the basic terminology behind this topic but let us briefly go over the key terms involved in profit and loss questions.

  • Cost Price (CP)-  The actual cost paid for a product which includes taxes and other overhead expenses. 
  • Selling Price (SP)- The sum of money which is acquired while selling the product or the sum of money which is received for the product.
  • Market Price (MP)- The price listed on the product.
  • Profit– Profit is the sum of money acquired when the selling price is greater than the cost price. Profit= SP-CP. 

Profit percentage is the percentage of profit made while selling a product, profit% = 100 x Profit/Cost Price.

  • Loss– If the selling price is less than the cost price then the sum of money lost is called loss. Loss= CP- SP. Loss% =100x Loss/ Cost Price.

Other important formulas involved in this topic are:

  • SP= [(100+ Gain%)/100]x CP
  • SP=[(100-Loss%)/100]x CP
  • CP=[(100+Gain%)/100]xSP
  • CP=[(100-Loss%)/100]xSP

Profit and Loss Questions Asked in GMAT

GMAT has a couple of questions that are based on the concepts of profit and loss. Now that we have a basic understanding of profit loss concepts and we know the important formulas regarding the same, let us try solving some problems related to profit and loss questions. 

Here are a few types of questions that appear in the GMAT exams:

  • Profit or loss as a percentage of cost price
  • Profit and loss as a percentage for sales price
  • Profit or loss percentage as a percentage on the marked price

Example 1 of Profit and Loss Questions:

Question: If a man sold a table for Rs. 450. Find the cost price if he incurred a loss of 9%

Solution:  Let’s apply the simple formula: CP=[(100-Loss%)/100]xSP

CP of the table = (100/91)x 450= 495

Therefore the cost price of the table is Rs. 495

Example 2 of Profit and Loss Questions:

Question: A woman buys some pencils at the rate of 20 for Rs. 40 and sells them at 10 for Rs. 35. Calculate the loss or gain percent.

Solution: CP of 20 pencils is Rs.40 therefore cost of 1 pencil will be Rs. 2

SP of 10 pencils is Rs. 35 therefore selling price of 1 pencil is  Rs. 2.8

Gain= 2.8-2= 0.8

Gain%= 0.8/4×100 =10%

Example 3 of Profit and Loss Questions:

Question: A vendor sells his grocery by using weights that are 10% less than the true weights this results in him making a profit of 30%. Calculate the total gain percentage.

Solution: Considering that it is 1 kg of grocery bag. The actual weight is:

90% of 1000 gm = 900gm.

Now the cost price of each gram will be Re. 1. 

Therefore, CP of each bag = Rs. 900.

SP of 1 kg of bag = 130% of the true CP

Therefore, SP = 130/100 x1000 = Rs. 1300

Gain = 1300 – 900 = 400

Hence Gain % = 400/900 x 100 = 44.44%

If you understand the basics of this concept then you can definitely ace the questions pertaining to this question. The formulas are easy and the calculations are not that difficult. The formulas discussed here will help you save time, and practice will definitely help you increase your probability of successfully attempting these questions. 

Profit and Loss Questions 

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After going through the aforementioned solved examples, here are some unsolved profit and loss questions for your practice- 

  1. The cost of 50 articles is the same as that of the selling price of y articles. If the profit earned over them is 35%, then, find the value of y. 
  2. In Rohit General Store, the profit earned over goods sold is 320% of the cost. If the selling price remains the same but the profit increases by 20%, approximately what percentage of the selling price is the profit? 
  3. Sara sells an article for Rs. 25.50 and makes a profit of 28%. At what price should he sell so that she makes a profit of 40%? 
  4. Riya bought two eggs for Rs. 2 and 3 eggs for Rs. 2.50. She further sells all the 5 eggs at Rs.6. Determine the gain or loss percent of Riya.
  5. During Diwali sale, the price of two TV and 1 mixer is Rs. 10,000 while a set of 2 mixtures and 1 TV cost Rs. 7,500. What is the value of one TV? 
  6. A fraud dealer while professing his goods at CP, uses 900 gram weight for 1 kg. Calculate his gain percent. 
  7. Nidhi marked the SP of a pen at 4/3 times of its actual C.P., calculate what will be the profit percent for her.
  8. In the nearby general store, a trader mixes 25 kg of wheat sold at 20 rupees per kg and 35 kg of wheat sold at 30 rupees per kg. Key for the shelf the mixture at 35 rupees per kg, determine the profit percent earned by him. 
  9. By selling orange at 60% profit, Rajesh got Rs. 38 more than one-third of its cost price. Find out what is the cost price of the orange. 
  10. A book is sold at a loss of 10%. If it had been sold for Rs.11 more, there would have been a gain of 13.5%. Calculate the cost price of the book.


What is Cost Price?

The actual cost paid for a product which includes taxes and other overhead expenses.

What is selling price?

The sum of money which is acquired while selling the product or the sum of money which is received for the product.

What is profit?

Profit is the sum of money acquired when the selling price is greater than the cost price. Profit= SP-CP.

Though we have provided you with all the information related to how to go about profit and loss questions, it is quite normal to feel unsure about whether the specific course is meant for you. But you don’t need to give into these doubts, let the counsellors at Leverage Edu help you in deciding what course is suited for your strengths. 

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