Directing Class 12 Notes

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Directing Class 12

Business Studies is an interesting as well as scoring subject. If you prepare well and are thorough with your notes, you can excel in the subject.  The chapter on Directing class 12 is interesting and an important part of the business studies syllabus. Here in this blog, we will discuss in brief what this chapter is all about.

Must Read: Business Studies Class 12 Project

What is Directing?

Before we move on to the details, let us first know what directing is. Directing, in simple terms can be defined as the task of instructing  and motivating the employees in any particular organization to maximize their efforts, so that it results in the achievement of the organisational goal. As put forward by Ernest Dale, “Directing is telling people what to do and seeing that they do it to the best of their ability.”

Characteristics of Directing

The chapter on directing class 12 also talks about the characteristics of directing and the importance of it. Mentioned below are the various characteristics of directing. 

  • Responsible for initiating action
  • And ensures continuity of function
  • Can take place at every level
  • Flows from top to bottom.
  • Its orientation is performance based.

Importance of Directing 

Moving further in the chapter of Directing class 12, we now take a brief look at the importance of directing. The important points are mentioned below. 

  • Integrates and maximizes employees’ efforts
  • Acts as a means of motivation
  • Brings balance in the organisation
  • Facilitates changes

Do Read: Highest Salary Jobs for Commerce Students

Principles of Directing

The chapter on Directing class 12 also defines certain Principles of Directing which are essential to the process. Listed below are certain principles of directing.

  • Focusses on maximum individual contribution
  • Ensures harmony of objectives
  • There must be unity of command
  • Efficient use of appropriate technique
  • Correct use of managerial communication
  • Strategic enforcement of informal organisation
  • Focusses on effective leadership

Elements of Staffing

According to the chapter on Directing class 12, there are various elements of the process of staffing. They are mentioned below: 

What is Supervision and What is its Importance?

Supervision involves instructing and monitoring employees at work. Supervision facilitates communications and ensures regular flow of feedback. It also leads to optimum utilization resources, maintains discipline and improves motivation.

What is motivation?

Motivation involves stimulating, inspiring and inducing the employees to perform to the best of their capabilities according to the chapter on directing class 12. Since, it is a psychological term, it cannot be strictly enforced. Motive, motivator and motivation are the inter related terms of motivation.

Characteristics of Motivation

Mentioned below are the important characteristics of motivation. You can have a look here: 

  • It is a complex, dynamic and continuous process.
  • It is a psychological phenomenon.
  • Motivation results in a goal directed behaviour.
  • Motivators can either be positive or negative.

Process of Motivation

The process of motivation finds mention in the chapter of directing class 12. It begins with an unsatisfied need, which creates tension and acts as a major driving force in the process of motivation. The frustration prompts the individual to search for alternatives to satisfy his need and once his needs are satisfied, the frustration which had built up reduces. 

Importance of Motivation

Mentioned below are points which indicate the importance of the process of motivation. 

  • Turns negative attitude to positive attitude.
  • Enhances the performance level of employees.
  • Maximizes efforts that help in achieving the organisational goal.
  • Creates a supportive and healthy work environment.
  • Helps the manager to inculcate new changes and causes significant reduction in employees turnover.

Need Hierarchy Theory of Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory

The most crucial element in motivation is ‘need’ or ‘desires’ according to the chapter on directing class 12. As it is only through personal needs and desires that employees get motivated to maximize effort. Maslow put forward a sequence or hierarchy of needs :

  • Physiological needs
  • Safety and security needs
  • Social or belonging needs
  • Esteem needs
  • Self-actualization needs

His theory is however based on two broad assumptions . One being, human actions are governed and influenced by their needs and desires and the other one being, that needs follow a certain sequence or hierarchy. Motivation also uses incentives as a means of improving performance. Incentives can be of two types -Financial and Non-Financial Incentives. Tabulated below are the two types of incentives as per directing class12.

  • Autocratic or Authoritative Leadership
  • Democrative and Participative Leadership
  • Free-rein or Laissez-faire Leadership

What is Communication?

In simple terms, communication can be defined as  the exchange of ideas, information or instruction between two or more persons via different means. It establishes effective leadership and thus increases managerial efficiency. It not only acts as a basis of coordination, co-operation and decision making, but also ensures smooth run of an enterprise.

Communication Process

The communication process starts when the sender has any message to communicate to another person and in the process of communication noise refers to any unwanted interruption that occurs during the flow of message.

Communication Process
Image Source: LearnCBSE

Two Modes of Communication

Two Methods of Communication are Oral and Written. However, the chapter on Directing class 12 elaborates on two modes of organizational communication. They are mentioned below.

Formal Communication

  • Official communication that takes place in any organization.
  • Formal communication is of four types: 
    1. Downward communication
    2. Upward communication
    3. Horizontal communication
    4. Diagonal communication

Networks of Formal Communication

  • Wheel pattern
  • Chain pattern
  • Circle pattern
  • Channel or free flow pattern
  • Inverted ‘V’

Informal Communication

Communication that occurs between different members of any organisation who are not officially attached. Networks of informal communication are mentioned below.

  • Gossip
  • Clusters
  • Single strand
  • Probability

Explore: Business Studies Class 12 Case Studies

So, this was all about the chapter on Directing class 12. We hope these notes help you prepare well for your upcoming exams. Are you confused about what do after class 12th commerce? Get in touch with out experts at Leverage Edu who will glide you through the tedious admission process. Sign up for a free session today!

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