Difference Between C and JAVA

5 minute read
Difference Between C and JAVA

With programming languages nothing short of dictating our lives, be it the internet, communications, and media or infrastructure and logistics, etc, the importance of learning programming languages has soared multifold. Consequently, it has found inclusions in both computer science class 11 as well as a computer science class 12 syllabus. Moreover, having a good grasp at the school level acts as a foundation while pursuing higher-level computer courses, for instance, BCA. In this blog, we will discuss the major as well as the common differences between C and JAVA programming languages. 

Introduction C Language

C Programming Language: Known as a procedural compiled programming language, C is part of the family of ‘C’-based languages. Having been around for more than a few decades, it was initially designed to sustain the UNIX operating system. At present, it is being employed in the development and running of embedded systems, desktop-based applications, system applications, internet browsing applications, IoT, databases and much more.

Also Read: Advanced Java Course

Key Features of C Language

  • A very simple to learn a structured programming language is C.
  • Programming in this language is quick and effective since it is efficient.
  • C is not dependent on any specific hardware or operating system, making it a very portable and adaptable programming language. Any C-written programme may be executed on any computer that supports it without requiring any modifications.
  • The built-in operators and function libraries in C are extensive.
  • C is statically typed and modular.

Introduction to Java Language

JAVA is counted amongst the most popular programming languages, it is also often referred to as the backbone of current GUI-based applications. Designed by the erstwhile Sun Microsystems (now owned by Oracle) with the motto of ‘write once, run anywhere [WORA], its properties include being general-purpose, object-oriented and platform-independent. The JAVA Virtual Machine is used to run the code.

Key Features of Java Language

  • The WORA (Write Once, Run Anywhere) functionality is among Java’s most intriguing and significant aspects. Java code may be executed on any computing platform after it has been compiled. JVM (Java Virtual Machine) must be installed on the Windows Operating System for Java code, for instance, created on a MAC Operating System to function smoothly on a Windows Operating System.
  • All Java programmes are expressed in the form of classes and objects since Java is only an object-oriented programming language.
  • Java has automated memory management and is a multithreaded language. Because of its network-centric design, it provides excellent garbage collection characteristics and is often used for distributed computing.
  • Java is flexible and dynamic.
  • Java is also secure and robust.

Major Differences between C and JAVA

Before diving into in-depth programming-related differences between C and JAVA, it is important to give a list of the major points of distinction. We have curated these in the following table: 

Basis C Java
Developed by Dennis Ritchie James Gosling
Year 1972 1991
Type Function-oriented Object-oriented
Basic Programming Unit function class=ADT
Used for The system as well as application-based programming Not possible
Inheritance OOPS is not supported and thereby, inheritance is not possible Inheritance is supported
Threading Not supported Supports
Pointers Supports Not supported
Portability Not portable Portable
Platform Dependency Dependent Independent
Approach Top-down  Bottom-up
Number of keywords 32 50
Go-to-statements Supported Not supported
Memory  User-based memory management Internal management of memory
Graphics  External Libraries Java library support
Demotions Automatic but might lose perception Must explicitly cast

Now that the primary ones are done with, let’s come to the not-so-subtle difference between C and JAVA. This pertains largely to the programming elements between the two. Moreover, these can form the basis of C# Interview Questions or Data Structure Interview Questions later in your career.

Basis C Java
Character Type ‘char’ is generally 8 bit ASCII ‘char’ is generally 16-bit UNICODE
Integer Types int 32 bit 2’s complement long 32 bit 2’s complement int 32 bit 2’s complement long 64 bit 2’s complement
Boolean Type use int: 0 for false, nonzero for true boolean is its type – value is stored as true or false
Pass-by-value Array decays to the pointer; Primitive data types and pointers are passed by value Primitive data types and references [incl. arrays] are passed by value
strings ‘\0’-terminated character array built-in immutable String data type
Interface method non-static function public method
Overloading no Methods: yes
Operators: no
null NULL null
Declaration of variables Only at the beginning of the block Anywhere
Manipulating Pointers *, &, + No direct manipulation method
Preprocessors Supported Not supported
Memory allocation of data structures and arrays Data, bss, stack or heap heap
Polymorphism union inheritance
The data type for a generic term void* Object
Functions int max(int a, int b) Public static int max (int a, int b)
For loops for (i = 0; i < N; i++) for (i = 0; i < N; i++)
Array Size Arrays don’t know their size a.length
Type ‘Hello world’ #include<stdio.h>int main(void) { print(“Hello\n”);   return 0;} public class HelloWorld { public static void main(String[] args) { System.out.println(“Hello”);   }} 
Variable naming conventions sum_of_squares sum of squares
Exit and return value to OS exit(1) System.exit(1)

Which is better C or Java Language

Which of the two languages is superior is one of the most obvious queries that programmers who are learning these two languages could have. One must ask themselves what their use case is to respond to this question. C is probably a better option than Java if the programming language has to provide higher performance and must be utilised in systems where high speed and performance are crucial.

Java, however, most definitely functions as the best alternative for the majority of use cases of constructing Software Products or Distributed Systems because of its extensive libraries and the abundance of features it has to offer. So, C vs. Java: which is superior? is truly a question that can only be addressed once the usage scenario or use case has been made explicit.


Is Java based on C?

Yes, both C and C++ had a significant impact on Java’s syntax.

What makes C still in use?

Because of its intimate relationship to hardware, high portability, and predictable resource utilisation, C is still very important and relevant today. Because of its tremendous speed and performance, C is the best language for low-level programming, including creating operating systems, kernels, and embedded software.

Java or C: Which is more difficult?

C is a simple language to employ for developing tiny programmes. But because of the libraries and other features that Java offers, it is simpler to utilise when creating apps. For moderately sophisticated applications, LOCs in C will always be higher than in Java.

As you may have come to know, the difference between C and JAVA is not restricted to one or two but scores. Having an in-depth knowledge of the basics as well as a grasp over the ofte programming details is crucial. If you have a computer exam coming soon or want to pursue a full-fledged career in programming, take assistance from the best industry mentors and experts at Leverage Edu on which path is right for you so that you get all geared up for a rewarding career. Click Here to book your 30 minutes FREE Consultation Session. Hurry up, Book your slot now!

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