Difference Between C and JAVA

3 minute read
Difference Between C and JAVA

With programming languages nothing short of dictating our lives, be it the internet, communications, and media or infrastructure and logistics, etc, the importance of learning programming languages has soared multifold. Consequently, it has found inclusions in both computer science class 11 as well as computer science class 12 syllabus. Moreover, having a good grasp at the school level acts as a foundation while pursuing higher-level computer courses, for instance, BCA. In this blog, we shall limit ourselves to a discussion on the major as well as common difference between C and JAVA programming languages. 

Difference Between C and JAVA: What are C and JAVA?

Before going into the specifics and major difference Between C and JAVA, it is vital to provide a brief overview of both the languages and how they are fundamentally different.

  • C Programming Language: Known as a procedural compiled programming language, C is part of the family of ‘C’-based languages. Been around for more than a few decades, it was initially designed to sustain the UNIX operating system. At present, it is being employed in the development and running of embedded systems, desktop-based applications, system applications, internet browsing applications, IoT, databases and much more.
  • JAVA: Counted amongst the most popular programming languages, it is also often referred to as the backbone of current GUI-based applications. Designed by the erstwhile Sun Microsystems (now owned by Oracle) with the motto of ‘write once, run anywhere [WORA], its properties include being general-purpose, object-oriented and platform-independent. The JAVA Virtual Machine is used to run the code.

Major Differences between C and JAVA

Before diving into in-depth programming related difference between C and JAVA, it is important to give a list of the major points of distinction. We have curated these in the following table: 

Basis C Java
Developed by Dennis Ritchie James Gosling
Year 1972 1991
Type Function-oriented Object-oriented
Basic Programming Unit function class=ADT
Used for System as well as application-based programming Not possible
Inheritance OOPS is not supported and thereby, inheritance is not possible Inheritance is supported
Threading Not supported Supports
Pointers Supports Not supported
Portability Not portable Portable
Platform Dependency Dependent Independent
Approach Top-down  Bottom-up
Number of keywords 32 50
Go-to-statements Supported Not supported
Memory  User-based memory management Internal management of memory
Graphics  External Libraries Java library support
Demotions Automatic but might lose perception Must explicitly cast

Now that the primary ones are done with, let’s come to the not-so-subtle difference between C and JAVA. This pertains largely to the programming elements between the two. Moreover, these can form the basis of C# Interview Questions or Data Structure Interview Questions later in your career.

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Basis C Java
Character Type ‘char’ is generally 8 bit ASCII ‘char’ is generally 16-bit UNICODE
Integer Types int 32 bit 2’s complement long 32 bit 2’s complement int 32 bit 2’s complement long 64 bit 2’s complement
Boolean Type use int: 0 for false, nonzero for true boolean is its own type – value is stored as true or false
Pass-by-value Array decays to pointer; Primitive data types and pointers are passed by value Primitive data types and references [incl. arrays] are passed by value
strings ‘\0’-terminated character array built-in immutable String data type
Interface method non-static function public method
Overloading no Methods: yes
Operators: no
null NULL null
Declaration of variables Only at the beginning of the block Anywhere
Manipulating Pointers *, &, + No direct manipulation method
Preprocessors Supported Not supported
Memory allocation of data structures and arrays Data, bss, stack or heap heap
Polymorphism union inheritance
Data type for generic term void* Object
Functions int max(int a, int b) Public static int max (int a, int b)
For loops for (i = 0; i < N; i++) for (i = 0; i < N; i++)
Array Size Arrays don’t know their own size a.length
Type ‘Hello world’ #include<stdio.h>int main(void) { printf(“Hello\n”);   return 0;} public class HelloWorld { public static void main(String[] args) { System.out.println(“Hello”);   }} 
Variable naming conventions sum_of_squares sumOfSquares
Exit and return value to OS exit(1) System.exit(1)

As you may have come to know, the difference between C and JAVA is not restricted to one or two but scores. Having an in-depth knowledge of the basics as well as grasp over the minute programming details is crucial. If you have a computer exam coming soon or want to pursue a full-fledged career in programming, take assistance from the best industry mentors and experts at Leverage Edu on which path is right for you so that you get all geared up for a rewarding career. Click Here to book your 30 minutes FREE Consultation Session. Hurry up, Book your slot now!

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